Виртуальные цепи поставок как один из способов повышения эффективности межорганизационной координации
The article analyzes the current trends in the economy, associated with the gradual transition of the company from traditional approaches to supply chain management to the "virtual", investigated their underlying causes, as well as an assessment of prospects for the development of this fact. Currently, in most sectors of the supply chain model, used by Henry Ford, it has long lost its relevance. Today is difficult to meet fully vertically integrated company, which independently produces all the parts and components for their finished products, and controls virtually all links in the supply chain independently. The exception may be the companies working in the field of mining. The main advantage of vertical integration is the ability to counter the uncertainty in the external environment by reducing the level of volatility in prices and transaction costs in the supply chain, but at the same time, this form of control will inevitably lead to less flexibility in general and the emergence of additional administrative costs. Market organization relationships in the supply chain and the use of logistics outsourcing strategy, in contrast to maximize capacity utilization and expand the resource base through greater coverage of qualified suppliers. But despite the advantages of this form of interaction between organizations may lead to a large total cost due to transaction costs. Virtual integration can be viewed as an alternative control mechanism, which achieves both operational flexibility and an optimal level of total costs by increasing both external and internal control. Virtual integration necessarily implies a close relationship of logistics and information technology, which allows you to reach a negotiated throughout the supply chain performance of operations and the coordinated planning and control. At the operational level, the use of information technology makes it possible to support interaction between participants in the supply chain when the main logistics operations, and at the tactical level to ensure joint decision-making and monitoring of performance indicators. Currently, the virtual supply chains are showing interest a large number of companies in the long term because they allow you to reduce inventory levels and the execution of client orders, and therefore increase the efficiency of any business. However, virtual supply chains are not only advantages, but also a number of difficulties, including information security risks, the synchronization of information systems, intellectual property rights and others that should be taken into account.