On the model updating operators in univariate estimation of distribution algorithms
The role of the selection operation—that stochastically discriminate between individuals based on their merit—on the updating of the probability model in univariate estimation of distribution algorithms is investigated. Necessary conditions for an operator to model selection in such a way that it can be used directly for updating the probability model are postulated. A family of such operators that generalize current model updating mechanisms is proposed. A thorough theoretical analysis of these operators is presented, including a study on operator equivalence. A comprehensive set of examples is provided aiming at illustrating key concepts, main results, and their relevance. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
This article analyzes and systematizes the theoretical approaches on sociological study of social interaction on the Internet labor market. Despite the rapid growth of atypical employment, including Internet employment, the theoretical study of this issue is currently insufficient and requires further research. The author discusses such foundations, which justify the specificity of the Internet labor market, as well as peculiarities of social interaction of the major actors, in the conditions of virtual communication. The method of this research lies in theoretical analysis of sociological theories of social interaction and comparison of the basic aspects of Internet employment. During the course of analysis of the Internet labor market, the author examines the system of interrelationship between the Internet employee and the hire. The use of several sociological approaches reveals various aspects of interaction on the Internet labor market from the moment of mutual search until the end of partnership.
This paper considers subjective beliefs in luck application to the theory of decision making under risk. Economic and psychological literature on this subject is analyzed in order to provide foundations and methodological guide for this application. It is also shown why ignoring these beliefs may result in significant biases for empirical analysis. Particularly it is shown that this ignoring may bias risk aversion parameters in individual utility function: risk averse person can be mistaken for risk loving one and vice versa. Finally, it is concluded that it is possible to apply beliefs in luck to decision making theory using concepts of subjective probabilities and stochastic dominance.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.