Horizontal and Vertical Gender Segregation in Russia—Changes upon Labour Market Entry before and after the Collapse of the Soviet Regime
Using retrospective data from the Russian Education and Employment Survey, we examine labour market entry in Russia in terms of changes in horizontal gender segregation and vertical gender inequalities before and after the collapse of the Soviet regime in 1991. Our results provide evidence for horizontal gender segregation across branches of the economy among labour market entrants in Russia, which have been growing since 1991. Moreover, horizontal differences seem to be driving vertical gender inequalities in terms of entry into authoritative positions. Accounting for heterogeneity in education and the entered branch, we ﬁnd that despite gender equality principles and full-time employment for women, vertical gender inequalities had already existed under the Soviet regime. However, these increased during the liberalization reforms. These growing vertical gender inequalities can be traced back mainly to a worsening of female chances in an economic transition, whereas there was no signiﬁcant change for male entrants. Furthermore, women seem to be particularly disadvantaged among highly qualiﬁed entrants. We conclude that Russian female entrants have not fully converted their educational advantage into occupational opportunities since the transition from socialism to a liberalized market economy.