Этичное потребление в России: профили, факторы, потенциал развития // Вопросы экономики. 2015. №5. С. 78-102.
The article presents the results of the first representative study of ethical consumption in Russia. The level and profiles of ethical consumption, as well as the main types of ethical consumers have been identified. Factors affecting the partition of individuals into the different types of consumers have been defined using the multinomial logit regression. On this basis, the paper draws implications on the potential and the conditions of expansion of ethical consumption in Russia.
The paper discusses social aspects of higher education institutions engagement with their regional communities. On the basis of the cases of the Russian Siberian and Southern Federal Universities the author analyzes practices and formats of their interaction with different regional stakeholders as part of the FUs' social function implementation. The FU's capacity to enhance their third mission is assessed. The author suggests a set of indicators to assess universities social activities impact on development of the regions, and puts forward recommendations on building the federal universities capacity for fulfilling their third role. The paper is prepared within the framework of the Ministry of Education and Science project "Organizational and analytical support to the national priority project "Education" on activities aimed at "Development of Federal Universities", carried out by the National Training Foundation.
In theory, a poverty line can be defined as the cost of a common (inter-personally comparable) utility level across a population. But how can one know if this holds in practice? For groups sharing common consumption needs but facing different prices, the theory of revealed preference can be used to derive testable implications of utility consistency knowing only the "poverty bundles" and their prices. Heterogeneity in needs calls for extra information. We argue that subjective welfare data offer a credible means of testing utility consistency across different needs groups. A case study of Russia's official poverty lines shows how revealed preference tests can be used in conjunction with qualitative information on needs heterogeneity. The results lead us to question the utility consistency of Russia's official poverty lines.
In the article the main sociological problem of social solidarity is discussed in terms of sociology of emotions. Emotions as integral part of human behavior operate on micro- and macrolevel of social structure and promote social consensus and make adjustments to normative behavior. On the basis of analysis of the body of works on sociology of emotions the author concludes that sociologists tend to study social solidarity through «moral emotions». Namely these emotions have strong effects on individual and social behavior and hold up moral order and social solidarity. In the author’s opinion moral emotions are the part of emotional regimes, which are developed in social order and support social solidarity.
Sociology of altruism, morality and social solidarity: introduction in a new field of study.
In the articles, reviews and abstracts submitted to your attantion under analysis are issues of social theory, empirical sociological studies, history of sociology. The contributions discuss the actual tendencies and perspectives of sociological science in Russia and abroad.
The paper presents the results of the research Regional identity in the conditions of socio-economic changes (Nizhniy Novgorod region 2002-2014). The directive interviews with more than 500 people conducted in 2002 and more than 300 in 2014 in the capital of Volga Federal District (Nizhniy Novgorod) and neighboring towns will be described and discussed. During the interviews the respondents specified a) the areas of regional policy, which are significant for all the residents in the region, b) the areas of regional policy, which are meaningful for them personally, and c) the areas of social activity in which they would like to participate themselves. Through the use of mathematical statistics methods we identified the most important areas of regional policy for the residents of the region and as well calculated the following indexes for different social groups (female and male respondents, respondents of different age groups, respondents with different levels of education, respondents with various professional and work experience, respondents from more or less urbanized territories): " Solidarity (congruence of the indicators "important for everybody" and important for me"); " Positive selfishness - activity "for oneself" (congruence of the indicators "important for me" and "ready to participate "); " Altruism - activity for others(congruence of the indicators "important for everybody" and "ready to participate ") In the paper we will present and analyze the dynamics of changes which occurred during 12 years of socio-economic development of the region. Research results will be discussed in the contexts of sociological traditions from E.Durkheim and K.Marx to J. Alexander with the dominance of the interactionist approach and N.Luhmanns communication theory (as we assume, that this theory allows us to interpret social solidarity not in the context of revolutionary overturns but in the context of identification of the possible population protest activity).
We approach higher education as a source of not only private good but also public one. An analysis of oeuvres was aimed at differentiating between formal and substantive meanings of the term “university responsibility”. Substantive meaning of responsibility appeals to criteria beyond knowledge, appreciates the crucial importance of education effects in various aspects of life, and derives from the very fact of interdependence between the university and the society. We believe that importance of university as an institution forming the society may specifically be put into question in Russia, where the high level of education coexists weirdly with the high level of social hardship. An online questionnaire was completed by more than one third of graduates of a Russian confessional (Orthodox) university residing in more than 100 localities of Russia, former Soviet Republics, and other foreign countries. The data on graduates’ shared values and attitudes obtained in the survey was compared to results of national and international surveys on family issues, civic engagement, values, employment, social capital, and consumption practices. Based on this comparison, we suggest that philosophies and attitudes of Orthodox university graduates have many common points that set them aside from the other population of Russia: they are committed to family and civic values, have a strong attitude of service, and participate in social activities to help people in need. Standardized indices of social capital in the sample of Orthodox university graduates are three times higher than those in the national sample of all higher education graduates. We propose to raise a critical discussion of the role of religion in higher education and to dwell specifically on issues of validity of theology as a scientific discipline, effects of bringing religion to high school, and the problem of confessional universities.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.