Волны жары в южных городах европейской части России как фактор риска преждевременной смертности населения
Road traffic injuries and their consequences are increasing global problem. In 2014, Russia ranked first in the number of deaths from traffic accidents per 1 million population among the countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). Objective: to identify the age and sex characteristics and dynamics of the burden of road traffic deaths in Russia. Methods: Non-clinical observational study, the object of which is the years of life lost due to premature mortality due to road accidents in Russia, calculated as the product of the numbers of deaths from road accidents, based on impersonal Rosstat data, and standard life expectancy (LE) on the annual age group for men and women between 2000 and 2012. Results: For men aged 20-34 years accounted for 50% of the total number of years of life lost due to a traffic accident in 2012; for women aged 20-34 - 37%.Reducing the number of years of life lost per 1000 men / women occurred in all age groups over the period. The sharp decline in the rate of increase in losses between 2007 and 2009 ended in 2010. The pace of growth of losses began to increase in almost all age groups after 2010. The pace of growth of losses for men aged 15-19 was so significant that the number of years of life lost per 1000 males in 2012 (29.8 per 1,000 men), almost back to the level of 2000 (30.8 per 1,000 men).
In Russia road-traffic accidents are one of the main causes of injury of the population. In 2016 more than 220,000 people were injured in road accidents, whereas 20,000 people died. Published review of injury epidemiology in the UK and Europe found that many studies relied solely on mortality rates from injury to describe epidemiology while deaths comprise only the top of the injury pyramid. It could lead to erroneous estimates of the total burden of injury.
This study is designed to assess both the years of life lost due to premature mortality and disability caused by road traffic fatal and non-fatal injuries, using integrated indicators of the population health. We use methodology of disability-adjusted life years (DALY), as well as an empirical database of the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate, medical statistics (№ 57) and statistics on deaths from vital registration system.
In the most Russian papers the years of life lost due to premature mortality were estimated, whereas in this study we estimated the whole burden of road-traffic accidents caused by fatal and non-fatal injuries in Russia in 2012. Our estimates of DALY due to road-traffic accidents in Russia in 2012 are close to WHO’s estimates, exceeding them by 4.5%. It indicates the ability of using Russian medical statistics to assess DALY without using different international models.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.