Природа и предмет общественного образования (первый мемуар)
The concept of war has always been fundamental for understanding of politics. But there's still no appropriate war and enemy theory available. I suppose such a theory should focus on the concept of bracketing of enmity. It should use just war theory principles limiting the possibility of armed conflicts and limiting methods applied to war. This approach takes in account both principles of law and justice that treats enemy as necessary part of political existence.
The article deals with the problem of normative evaluation of war and mass violence. The doctrines of Realism, Pacifism, Militarism, Realism and Just War are the most widely used theoretical and normative tools of this evaluation and normative practice. The latest developments have brought the Just War theory to the fore. The peak of popularity of the Just War Theory may prove, nevertheless, to be its swan's song. The recent theoretical findings as well as the political applications of this ethical theory in Kosovo and Iraq, have proved to be somewhat less then adequate, to say the least. Theoretically it hovers uneasily in between Militarism and Pacifism, pragmatically it may work as a smoke screen for the most hideous forms of agression and an instrument of the wide scale information war. The author of this article is holding that we must not put aside the idea of the morally constrained war, it may be modified. The result of this modification may be entitled Necessary War doctrine. The necessary war differs significantly from the just war, it is closer to pacifism and less prone to theoretical critisism. The foundations of this doctrine has been laid by Russian philosopher Ivan Ilyin.
This monograf is devoted to the subject of justice. Principal attention is given in the work to the organization of judizial power, procedure, the judiciary, procedural guarantees, and rights of the individual. The evolution of justice is analused against the background of various historical civilizations and epochs, making it possibleto more fully examine the tasks and functions of courts in the modern world. The basic national and international models of justice are described with special reference to the Russian model of justice, its principles, its institutional and procedural fundamentals and its future development, including the development of judicial procedure. This publication is intended for lawyers, scholars, teachers, postgraduate students and students of higher education, as well as for all those interested in questions surrounding justice.
The article comprises the analysis of the contemporary theories of justice including the general theoris as well as more specialized, like the just war theory. The article is a comment on the book by A.Prokofyev "To retribute everyone his due...An Introduction to the Theory of Justice". In a nut shell the basic idea of the article corresponds to the thesis that it is false to follow uncritically the letter and spirit of the Western theories of justice, which, contain many contradictions even if these are the best of them, besides, they contain some intuitive and unreflective assumptions. The main goal of the Russian ethical thought regarding the Western theories should imply the ability to see both the contadictions and the assumptions, which would enable it to come up with new normative solutions to the problems of justce.
From XVI - XVII centuries, modern European political philosophy put the State in the center of his investigations. The key-question raised in several works of the philosophers of modern Time until the XVIII century was the question about the State sovereignty. The XVIII century became a starting point in the philosophical tradition where the State was often considered from the point of view of his providential divinity or from the point of view of the general power which it represents. The novelty of the XVIII century consisted in the more definite pronunciation of the liberal requirement of the rational limitation of power of State by individual liberty. It is a question of putting the emphasis on modern subject of human rights, or natural rights. This evolution of political ideas in Europe influenced a lot the history of Russia who has been for the XVIII century in the course of hereuropeanization at political and cultural levels. In both domains, this transfer and the same expansion of European ideas and valuesto Russia brought in big conflicts inside which showed itself, on the one hand, in the opposition of the imperial ambition of the Russian State and of the strengthening of nationalism in the XIX century; and, on the other hand, in the opposition of universalism and of nationalism, as ethical and valuableprinciple, caused by cultural difference between Europe and Russia. In this article it is examined the reflexing of the Russian authors of XVIII-XIX centuries about the constitution of the best political regime and on his foundations, among which public education was considered as one of most important. Debates on the purposes of national public education, showed well the importance of the education of a new type of the personand of his training in compliance with new national purposes.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.