Североамериканские связи Франсиско де Миранды (продолжение)
Based on rich and diverse sources, including the U.S. archives, the article researches the place of the United States of America in life and revolutionary projects of the Precursor of the Spanish American independence Francisco de Miranda (1750-1816). It is argued that the circle of Miranda's friends and supporters in the United States was Federalist in spirit - contrary to a widely held notion that foreign revolutions drew support from the Jeffersonian National Republican milieu. The article analyses the 1797/1799 plan of the Anglo-American union against France and Spain in the name of the Spanish American independence and the annexation of Louisiana and Florida by the United States. This plan was elaborated by Miranda and supported by Alexander Hamilton. The precise date of one of Miranda's constitutional projects is clarified (1797, not 1798). For the first time in world historiography the article reconstructs the New York draft of soldiers for the Miranda's Venezuela expedition of 1806. The history of this expedition is also reconstructed in details.
The article deals with three constitutional projects of Francisco de Miranda, distinguished Venezuelan. It is devoted to analyzes of the characteristics of the project of 1798, based on the experience of British constitutional law and public law of Ancient Rome. Special attention is focused on provisions of the projects of 1801 and 1808: on temporary public power during the war of colonies for independence from Spain and on federal government after the liberation. F.Miranda used for these projects a constitutional experience of many countries. One of the sources of his intellectual reflection was the constitution of Ancient Rome, the most important elements of which were people`s assembleis and magistracy. These institutes were adopted by F.Miranda and creatively impleamented according to specific conditions of Ibero-America.
The article presents newly discovered eight letters from the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda (1750–1816) to the Governor of Trinidad in 1804–1811 Thomas Hislop (1764–1843), dated from September 3, 1807, to January 4, 1811. The author made this discovery in October 2015, in the manuscript division of the National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).
The article is devoted to the comparison between the declarations of independence of the United States and of Spanish American nations. The full list of Spanish American declarations of independence is compiled for the first time in historiography. The questions raised in this proposed comparison bring a scholar to the major issues of the independence movements in the New World (and in the end, to the discussion of the nature of British and Spanish colonial societies in America) and thus – do not have clear and final answers.
The Leander expedition of Francisco de Miranda (2 September 1805 – 31 December 1807) became the first formal attempt to organize a revolution for the independence of Spanish America. This study reconstructs the relations of Miranda with British civil and naval officials both in London and in the British Caribbean possessions adjacent to the Spanish Main: Trinidad, Barbados and Grenada, as well as with his British volunteers, in 1805–1807. Though the London cabinet, being aware of Miranda’s designs, did not endorse them, the Venezuelan received extensive support from the British in the Caribbean, primarily from the Commander of the Leeward Islands Station Rear Admiral Alexander Inglis Cochrane (1758–1832) and from the Royal governor of Trinidad Thomas Hislop (1764–1843) who hoped that, if Miranda were successful, independent Spanish America would provide crucial commercial benefits to Great Britain. London never punished Cochrane and Hislop for their arbitrary decisions, just as Captain Home Riggs Popham (1762–1820) was simply ‘severely reprimanded’ by a court-martial for his adventurous failed attack on Buenos Aires from Cape Town in the summer of 1806 and continued his career. Thus, we may infer that the calculations of Cochrane and Hislop were correct, and London, not planning to prepare and promote the revolution in Spanish America, would have supported it in the case of its victory.
Francisco de Miranda, Venezuela, Caribbean, British – Hispanic relations, Great Britain, Spanish American independence
The article proves that the so called Acta de Paris (December 22, 1797) adopted by the Junta de Diputados de los pueblos y provincias de América Meridional which presented a plan of Spanish American independence with the support of Great Britain and United States was in fact fully written by one man, Francisco de Miranda (1750–1816) who needed an image of non-existent revolutionary network as an argument in negotiations with the British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger (1759–1806) because he counted upon his aid.
Encyclopedia of U.S.-Latin American Relations is a comprehensive, three-volume, A-to-Z reference featuring more than 800 entries detailing the political, economic and military interconnections between the United States and the countries of Latin America, including Mexico and the nations in Central America, the Caribbean and South America.
No previous work has covered the web of important players, places and events that have shaped the history of the United States' relations with its neighbours to the south. From the Monroe Doctrine through today's tensions with Latin America's new leftist governments, this history is rich in case studies of diplomatic, economic and military cooperation and contentiousness.