Финансово-правовой механизм управления сферой образования в Великобритании и Канаде
Author considers education as an object of governance and therefore as a tremendous branch of the economy, which is producing the very special product, namely social and economic stability and prosperity. There are two main governance approaches to education sector management: a direct command method and an indirect funding mechanism. In this paper we focused on the latter, specifically for the United Kingdom and Canada. We intentionally chose these two countries to illustrate that the administrative-territorial division of a country and delineation of powers are not a barrier, protecting education from management at any level of territorial organization of powers via indirect funding governing tools. Funding mechanism makes education governance more flexible and free of unfunded mandates.
The article considers the problem of multi-criteria optimization of the state regulation of the quality of human capital in the information society. It describes human capital's dynamic by discrete model, taking into account the age dynamics of awareness and cognitive abilities of the individual as a carrier of information. Lifelong indices of human capital are constructed on the trajectories of human’s productivity and creativity, taking into account the increase in the quality of human capital in youth, and further, its decline in older age. The problem of state regulation is described as a bicriteria maximization of two population’s mathematical expectations of indices for the generation, taking into account not only the natural distribution of indices by starting values, but also the possibilities of socialization in the state-controlled education system. The identification of the model is based on the known population constraints on the phase tube of trajectories. The model is identified and researched by methods using approximation by Shannon’s metric nets. It is shown that the optimal choice of educational priorities by the state depends on the parameters of society: age mortality rates and the budget of time available for socialization of non-adults. There are combinations of parameters that lead to conflict of control criteria, so the solution is a set of Pareto-optimal strategies. For Russia, there is a dominant solution that prioritizes the development of cognitive abilities rather than awareness.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/