Обзор теоретических подходов к взаимодействию со стейкхолдерами проекта
Recently, organizational challenges and the need to achieve sustainable development make it more important to engage with all the necessary and relevant participants of the economic and social processes.
Furthermore, the imperatives of sustainable development reinforce the need to engage with stakeholders to realize specific organizational goals, as well as to meet broader social, environmental and economic changes.
A company has many stakeholders, each with distinct types and levels of involvement, and often with diverse and sometimes conflicting interests and concerns. Like any other business function, stakeholder engagement needs to be managed. Stakeholder engagement has always been crucial to a company’s performance and recently has become an important tool to transfer responsibility to management practice and corporate strategy.
The academic literature includes many attempts at classifying stakeholders using various criteria and definitions. The ambiguity and the vagueness of the stakeholder concept are discussed from the different scientific approaches. The criticisms of stakeholder theory have already been thoroughly analyzed and widely commented on in the scientific literature.
The stakeholder model has been constantly expanding and now includes more than two dozens groups. However, over the years, the uncontrolled broadening of its scope and applications, the multiplication of the numerous stakeholder definitions, have created confusion. A strong need for clarification and a clear delimitation of the stakeholders was thus urgently needed.
Moreover businesses should scale their stakeholder engagement strategies relative to the risks. The company should identify and map stakeholders in regard to all of its activities, products, services and projects
There is no one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to stakeholder engagement. The type of relationship the private sector should try to develop with its stakeholders, and the resources and level of effort that it should invest, will differ according to the nature, location, and scale of the project; the phase of its development; and the interests of the stakeholders themselves.
In this article the authors present a review of different methods and scientific approaches to the stakeholder engagement theory and make an attempt to establish the significance of stakeholder engagement tools and modes in the process of project management.