This text begins by applying the critique of phrenology to contemporary neuro-science in order to raise, once again, the question of consciousness. I then argue that consciousness is a process and product of the body, driven by history; like the work (and a work) of art. This becomes clearer with Hegel’s differentiation between human and animal consciousness, that is, in how our language and thought can tolerate contradiction, even grasp it as true. Thus, as Aristotle knew: consciousness is to the body as the sign is to the referent—and this has implications for our very survival.
The article analyzes post-Soviet economic policy in the light of the previous periods of the Russian economic history. The authors find a striking similarity between the measures proposed by modern Russian economic liberals – as well as their consequences – and the actions taken by the Russian authorities during much earlier periods. They explain these similarities with the fact that “Western” terms can mean something very different in the context of a non-Western culture, phenomena and institutions with the same names in different types of societies can differ fundamentally and perform different functions. Furthermore, “Westernization” can be a purely superficial process intended more for show than for substance. By applying the methodology of substantivism which stresses the fundamental differences between economies based on gifts (reciprocity), redistribution, and exchange (market), they argue that Russia’s economy differs significantly from that of the countries of Western Europe and, in the typological sense, is closer to such European countries as Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, and Serbia. For this reason, similar measures of economic policy applied in Western Europe and Russia bring different results.
This book’s claim to difference is its focus on “how people lived” and it clearly achieves this goal in a concise but holistic English-language account of Siberian history. It is not quite social history but rather a depiction of the pragmatic aspects of life. Janet M. Hartley covers housing, diets, and coping with long-distance travel in conjunction with key historical events from Yermak Timofoyevich’s expedition in the 1580s and Mikhail Speranski’s reforms of the 1820s to Soviet socialism. Equally important, the book does not aim to be comprehensive but to provide a sense of the diversity of ways of life in different locations (villages, towns, garrisons); among different population groups (Cossacks, exiles, explorers, missionaries, Soviet workers, and academics); and around projects such as railway construction, collectivization, and the making of the new Soviet citizen.
The book is devoted to one of the most prominent American writers, Norman Mailer who had a vivid imagination. He was one of those authors who visualized themselves as well as their works, and on the contrary novelized their country and reality. N. Mailer was a very public person. He revealed his publicity being a novelist, essayist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter, actor and even a film director. Besides one may find lots of his radio and TV interviews. This is one more aspect of his literary work, because his unique feature is a correlation between the art of writing and the media. America is Mailer’s beloved subject. More over his America is an Individual. It is a lifelike image created with all its complexities by means of speculating on real facts and people. In this sense there is another interesting trait of Mailer’s work: through the period analyzed in the book he coped with both fiction and non-fiction. In doing so the writer dramatized the best and the worst of American life by connecting the life of his characters to the life of the nation. And his characters are preeminently illustrious Americans, the symbols of this country. Chronological order of publications is replaced by aspects: history, mythology, imagination. This is the study of Mailer’s combination of fiction and non-fiction, fact and document, history and reality, visualization and novelization by studying his books: Harlot’s Ghost, Oswald’s Tale. An American Mystery, The Ancient Evenings, The Gospel According to the Son, Tough Guys Don’t Dance, The Castle in the Forest