Свет Лавры in partibus infidelium: «украинизмы» в архитектуре Сибири XVIII в.
The Light of lavra in partibus infidelium: Ukrainian forms in the XVIII c. Architecture of Siberia The Russian Culture of late XVII and first half of XVIII centuries was deeply influenced by many representatives of the clergy coming from lavra of Kiev – main spiritual and educational centre of the Eastern Orthodoxy. In the field of architecture this impact wasn’t so decisive as in icon painting or church singing. The only part of Russia where Ukrainian forms where the basis of local architectural schools was Siberia. The key Ukrainian figure was metropolite Filofey Leshinski (1650–1727), a fervent preacher among native pagans and Old Believers, a true apostle of Siberian lands. The splendid Trinity monastery in Tiumen’ (1708-1741), a lavra copy, was his main architectural legacy. Posterior Ukrainian metropolites of Siberia went on with Kiev oriented program. They added Ukrainian “bania” cupolas to Tobol’sk’ St. Sophia (1726–1727, 1735), erected a winter cathedral in honor of founders of lavra (1743–1746), created a “space model” of miracle-working icon of Our Lady of Abalak (1748–1759) following Ukrainian patterns. “Ukrainisms” were adopted by Siberian architectural traditions as symbolic models and also as simply a building method. The Trinity monastery served as a model for Baroque churches of Tiumen’ — Znamenskaya (1768–1801) and Spasskaya (c. 1770 – 1796). The “bania” cupolas appear as the most assimilated Ukrainian form, widely used in East and West Siberia till the end of XVIII c., particularly in wooden churches. Tobol’sk masons succeeded in the blending of Ukrainian façades with traditional Russian volumes. If composition with “big octagon” wasn’t a great achievement, the churches with “little octagon” — the first was Archangel Michael (1745–1749) in Tobol’sk — were successfully adopted by different local traditions and were built throughout Siberia till early XIX c. What is the secret of this success of Ukrainian architectural forms in remote Siberia? It seems it grew from Filofey’s brilliant personality, his talent for architectural invention and a lack of long-standing architectural tradition in partibus infidelium.