Исследовательская схема анализа трудовых отношений с позиции нового институционального подхода
Precarization of labor - the impoverishment of the content of the employment relationship, the reduction of workers' rights and disregard of duties from the employer. New forms of labor relations - a set of transformations in the economic, social, psychological, legal relationships, which are realized in the course of employment between actors at different levels, get the gradual spread of the labor market. Among the new forms of employment include: outsourcing, crowdsourcing, outstaffing, insourcing, etc. The most problematic and controversial area of labor relations, which is located at the junction of the new, post-industrial forms of labor relations and old, traditional and industrial, is a source of labor precarization. The purpose of the article - study the relationship between new forms of employment and increasing labor precarization in the conditions of post-industrial economy. Objects of study are the new forms of labor relations, is a phenomenon that has economic, legal and social nature. The subject of research is the specificity of the opposition of new and traditional forms of labor relations, the differences between them lead to increased labor precarization in labor relations. Performed by the following methods: the traditional analysis of the literature, methods of scientific classification, ordering, logical and comparative analysis. The theoretical significance of the study is that the conclusions of the work contributed to the development of theoretical and methodological basis for the use of new forms of labor relations in the post-industrial economy, the development of such areas of science, like economics and sociology of labor. The reasons of increased precarization of labor in modern conditions are highlighted. Their removal could lead to the improvement the quality of participants work in labor relations in traditional and post-industrial sectors of the economy.
The paper attempts to examine methodological basis of institutional design of labor relations. The paper describes the contents of new forms of labor relations, marked differences from traditional forms. The essence of institutional design, the main stages of this process are described. Issues that must be answered in the course of institutional design of new forms of labor relations are highlighted. The approaches to the evaluation of the effectiveness of institutions are studied. Author's vision of evaluating the effectiveness of the labor relations Institute is offered. The algorithm of the institutional design of the new form of labor relations is described. Restraining forces among which were institutional traps that may impair the quality and speed of institutional design of a new form of labor relations are studied. Recommendations for leveling their negative impact on the process of institutional design of new forms of labor relations are highlighted. The value of the state, which has a key role in the finalization of the infrastructure of the labor market in accordance with the requirements of the innovation economy are concretized. The paper shows that the efficiency of the institutionalization of new forms of labor relations is largely dependent on how the subjects of labor accept business risks and what is the size of transaction costs of their activities. A key conclusion of the work consists in the assertion that the institutionalization of new forms of labor relations will depend on how often employers will use innovative approaches to the organization of workers, how workers will be involved in the process of labor relations, what economic effect will be provided the subjects of new forms of labor in while reducing their costs.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.