Interview: the challenge and serendipity of writing world history through the prime of empire
This article discusses the main factors of media image of the North Caucasus. The object of study is considered in the following three categories: the specificity of the region relative to its position in the Russian Federation, the historical and cultural factors of the formation of the image of the region, as well as features of news-making about the North Caucasus, in particular, on the federal TV channels. Based on the analysis it were identified three key characteristics of the image of the North Caucasus, broadcasted on federal television channels - a "explosiveness" of the region (terrorist activity), the high concentration of criminal groups and socio-economic disadvantage. The study was performed in the methodology of grounded theory based on the material of expert interviews.
Abstract. Relevance of the work is determined by the need to reduce high mortality from external causes, compared with the developed countries, and to create conditions for increasing life expectancy in Russia. The article tests the working hypothesis that a high level of traumatic mortality in Russia is associated with behavioral risk factors.
The aim of the study was to identify factors of mortality from external causes based on the study of expert opinions and develop ways to reduce it.
Methods. An expert interview of 18 experts was conducted. Besides demographers the interviewees also included sociologists, statisticians, doctors, lawyers, and community leaders.
Results. The article provides results of the analysis of the expert interviews. The interviews covered factors of high traumatic mortality in working age as well as measures for prevention and reduction; furthermore, the interviews also discussed the existing priorities of socio-demographic policy related to mortality from external causes, and possible scenarios of dynamics of mortality and life expectancy in Russia.
Conclusions. The working hypothesis was partially confirmed: high mortality from external causes is associated with behavioral, environmental and economic risk factors. Therefore, the crucial objectives include developing a self-protective, vital behavior as well as creating favorable physical and social conditions of work, leisure and travel.
These actions should be accompanied by increasing funding of programs on injury prevention and improving living standards of the population in general.
The mortality rate from external causes in general and individual causes within this class in Russia is two times higher than similar levels in the developed countries. However, a number of researchers who deal with medical certification of the death, have written about the underestimation of mortality from external causes such as homicides, suicides, alcohol poisonings, etc. and translating them into latent form. In this regard, on the topic of external reasons, an interview was held with leading experts in the field of demography, statistics and medicine. On the basis of studying experts' opinion article describes issues of quantitative and qualitative statistical registration of mortality from external causes in Russia. According to experts, statistics on external causes must be published on detailed codes of the ICD-10. So, despite the fact that overall levels of mortality from external causes and their types are seen on the basis of the Mortality Tabulation List of ICD-10, but it is often insufficient for a deep and detailed analysis of the mortality. The experts also opined on the reasons for the growth of injuries with undetermined intent, and ways to reduce mortality from these causes, among which the main are changing in the requirements for filling and modification of procedure for issuance of death certificates; legislative securing the position that a beginning of the investigation should serve as a statement, a message about the crime, and not a rule of procedure on the criminal case; cardinal improvement of the system of forensic examination.