Модель идеального языка и конструкция науки о единичном у Марио Низолио
The article deals with the interaction between the Ciceronian program of ideal language of the restored ancient rhetoric and the Early-modern project of a comprehensive and ground-breaking epistemological reform, that of the ‘science of the singulars’, in the Mario Nizolio’s pivotal treatise ‘On the true principles of philosophy’ (1553). The main goal of this ambitious reform was to shift the focus of the rational science, episteme in the Aristotelian sense of the term, from the universal notions to the individual things; a décalage fraught with far-reaching consequences not only for the epistemology and metaphysics, but for the ethics and politics as well.
The paper is devoted to the problem of supposition of terms in the propositions about imaginary objects and the conditions of their truth values in the doctrine of William of Ockham who was a leading figure of the scholastic nominalism. His rather radical ontological position acknowledges the existence of no more than two types of essences: unitary substances and qualities. Being devoid of the universals, the Ockhamist doctrine implied the transformation of the previously elaborated semantic theories, including the theory of sup- position. In the reconstruction of Ockham’s thought that became classical, the supposition closely approached the reference; however, in 2000s C.Dutilh-Novaes proposed the interpretation of supposition as a theory of propositional meanings. This approach brings forth the understanding of supposition as an intensional rather than extensional theory. One of the crucial arguments for this reconstruction is based on the application of supposition in the propositions about imaginary objects. According to our view, this argument is not free from some drawbacks. The term that makes the reference to the imaginary objects can have only simple or material supposition but not a personal one. W. Ockham names imaginary objects impossible objects.Chimaera is an impossible object, because it is considered as something which is combined of parts of different animals.That’s why it should contain several substantial forms, which leads to contradiction with the metaphysical principle of the uniqueness of the substantial form. In Ockham’s doctrine affirmative propositions about imaginary objects are always false since chimeras do not possess real existence. This observation implies that propositions about imaginary objects are more adequately squared with the extensional rather than intensional interpretation of supposition.
The axis of the publication is the impact of the late medieval logical and metaphysical theories upon the hermeneutical methodology in the exegetical practice of one of the most prominent Biblical scholars of that period - John Wyclif (1320/1324-1384), his opponents and predecessors. One of the major conclusions drawn in the article is that the late medieval interpretation of the biblical allegory as a predicative relation demonstrates the pertinence of the 14th century exegetical writings analysis in the context of the pivotal problem of the 20th century logic - the problem of the interplay between ontology and the logical analysis of language (B. Russell, G. Frege, etc.).
In the article was analyzed the Lorenzo Valla’s attempt to apply the methods of the philological criticism to the juridical texts. I am showing that the humanist method used by Valla was inadequate for this purpose and that the famous humanist had used the illegitimate arguments proving his position.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.