Стартовая диагностика детей на входе в начальную школу и оценка их прогресса в течение первого года обучения
This article describes the application of a tool for measuring initial cognitive level of first graders and their progress during the first year of school education (iPIPS) as a source of objective information to be used to make reasonable decisions in education sector by the example of the city of Sevastopol. Efficiency estimation results are provided for the equipment granted as part of Modernizing Regional Education System project (MRES). 655 pupils from Sevastopol schools taking part in MRES project were subjects of the research. It was discovered that the given equipment does not significantly increase first graders’ progress. To interpret the received results a qualitative study was conducted and potential reasons for low efficiency of interactive learning tools were determined.
Peculiarities of preschool educational environment under different programs of education in a preschool educational institution and at home are revealed. Motivational, social and emotional components of school adaptation are determined. It is proved that features of the social situation of development in preschoolers make a huge impact on their attitude to educational activity, schoolmates and a teacher. The results showed that educational environment in kindergartens facilitated a school pupil role taking and a successful school adaptation while home educational environment did not promote such adaptation to a full extent. The content of educational programs in preschool educational institutions has an impact on all aspects of school adaptation: attitude to learning, attitudes to schoolmates and a teacher as well as satisfaction with school as a whole.
This study looked at the effects of phonological preparedness and vocabulary size in children, who just started primary school, on their progress in reading at the end of the first grade while controlling for other factors that can be related to increasing or decreasing reading achievements (such as SES, parenting activities and noncognitive development of children). The study was conducted using data from the iPIPS project which assesses the preparedness of children for schooling and their progress at the end of the first school year. The sample consisted of 2740 first-graders living in two large Russian cities (Krasnoyarsk and Kazan) whose reading skills were assessed twice, at the beginning and at the end of the 2014–2015 school year. The results demonstrated that low levels of phonological ability and vocabulary are related to lower results not only for those who just started learning to read (as is suggested by the theoretical framework of reading skills acquisitions) but also for children who already have basic reading skills or read well. To compensate for this, special teaching approaches might be needed. Among family factors the main predictors or reading results were the level of the father’s education and language at home. Parenting activities related to reading were divided into informal (reading a book, discussing a book, reading street signs out loud during walks etc.) and formal (deliberate teaching of letters and writing letters or words), with informal activities being a significant predictor of reading outcomes at the end of the first year. Conclusions and limitations of the study are discussed.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.