Эльза Моранте: «антифеминизм» как форма феминизма
In the paper the works of Elsa Morante are analyzed. The analysis is based on four novels of the Italian authoress (“House of Liars”, “Arturo’s Island”, “History”, “Aracoeli”). Although Morante didn’t consider herself a feminist writer feministic features of novels are revealed.
Margaret Brent was the first woman lawyer in America, arriving in colonies in 1638. She was a master negotiator, an accomplished litigator, and a respect leader. Brent was involved in 124 court cases over 8 years and won every one. A powerful landowner, she was named as executor for Governor Calvert in 1647, when she restored calm and raised funds for mutinous soldiers by selling lands belonging to lord Baltimore, the Proprietor. In 1648 she demanded a "vote and voice" in the Maryland Assembly.
The novel of Elsa Morante «History» (1974) is studied. Elsa Morante is a prominent Italian writer of the XX-th century. The genre characteristics, the features of historical novel and connections with classical French and Russian literatures are analyzed. The novel relates to the Second World War, it is based on the narration of stories of lives of simple people, and the influence of macro-history to the micro-history is shown. In the conclusion it is revealed that the novel «History» is a manifest against violence in general. «History» is a chronicle, based on different testimonies and on the life experience of the author. The language and the style completely correspond to the genre of chronicle.
The paper is dedicated to the history of relationship between poetical and musical components of italian operas of XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries. The evolution of this relationship in genres of opera seria and opera buffa is being analized. The opinions of scientists in theory of music and literature are given. In the paper is described the phenomenon of musicality of poetry. In the end is proposed the further development of poetical and musical components in the Xix and XX centuries.
The article is devoted to the evolution of the western-european archetype – the Flying Dutchman. The research is based on selected works by Romantic writers S. T. Coleridge, W. Hauff, H. Heine, F. Marryat and R. Wagner. Main focus is placed on the genesis of the popular legend, ways of its reexamination and transformation in the works created in the epoch of Romanticism when main features of the legendary image were canonized
Russia has been experiencing the results of an acute economic crisis since 2012. However, the government has not been explicit in its declarations regarding austerity policies. On the contrary, it tends to represent its measures as "normal" and generally justifies cuts to public expenditure and reduced spending as part of a new understanding of the welfare state and socio-economic relations. Nevertheless, there is a clear connection between the crisis and the introduction of conservative discourse and the "traditional values" concept that targets gender equality both in public and private domains.
The Russian case study is exemplary and didactic. As Russia is new to market economics and has never developed a consistent neoliberal agenda, the shift to conservative ideologies came unexpectedly easily. Gender has become a battleground for the government to fight over social problems and austerity measures. Unlike the EU countries, the Russian government does not hesitate to challenge human rights and gender equality, easily shifting the blame to leftist ideologies – primarily feminism – that are held responsible for family instability and the poor state of demography and health. Using the concept of "traditional values" as a cover for increasing austerity measures, the government relies on short-term strategies. However, this shift to conservative public discourse has not been readily accepted by the Russian population, least of all by women. There is clear resistance from various social groups, including women. This resistance is not just taking the familiar form of public protests (although they have been taking place as well), but rather in the form of withdrawal from public space to minimise dealings with the state, a strategy familiar from the Soviet experience of resistance. Therefore, on the surface, Russian public discourse seems to be dominated by officially promoted ideologies, but this does not mean that society just accepts or even implements those ideologies eagerly.
At the same time, there is a clear tendency to follow supranational austerity measures by cutting public spending, amending social security policies, privatising care, and forcing women to return to the double-burden situation in the Soviet-type social contract by openly attacking feminist ideologies, gender equality, and human rights. In this situation, Russian NGOs, especially those with a human rights and gender-sensitive agenda, need more subtle strategies to deal with public policies, starting at the local government level.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.