Catalog of dessins d’enfants with no more than 4 edges
In this work, all the dessins d’enfants with no more than 4 edges are listed and their Belyi pairs are computed. In order to enumerate all dessins, the technique of matrix model computations was used. The total number of dessins is 134; among them 77 are spherical, 53 of genus 1, and 4 of genus 2. The automorphism groups of all the dessins are also found. Dessins are listed by the number of edges. Dessins with the same number of edges are ordered lexicographically by their lists of 0-valencies. The corresponding matrix model for any list of 0-valencies is given and computed. Complex matrix models for dessins with 1–3 edges are used. For the dessins with 4 edges, we use Hermitian matrix model.
We define cut-and-join operators in Hurwitz theory for merging two branch points of an arbitrary type. These operators have two alternative descriptions: (1) the GL characters are their eigenfunctions and the symmetric group characters are their eigenvalues; (2) they can be represented as W-type differential operators (in particular, acting on the time variables in the Hurwitz–Kontsevich τ -function). The operators have the simplest form when expressed in terms of the Miwa variables. They form an important commutative associative algebra, a universal Hurwitz algebra, generalizing all group algebra centers of particular symmetric groups used to describe the universal Hurwitz numbers of particular orders. This algebra expresses arbitrary Hurwitz numbers as values of a distinguished linear form on the linear space of Young diagrams evaluated on the product of all diagrams characterizing particular ramification points of the branched covering.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.