### Article

## Выбор среды передачи данных при проектировании локальных вычислительных сетей

The local networks development is one of the most frequently solved today tasks in the field of information technologies. The article considers the main stages of the local computer network development as a number of separate multicriteria partial solutions of selection tasks. We propose a new approach for the base project variant selection and for private solutions, based on the methods of the decision-making theory. The authors detail the decision of these problems on the basis of the analytical hierarchy method and the ELECTRE method. The article describes two usage examples of these methods for the solution of a problem of types of communication lines selecting on user's criteria.

This abstract offers a method for ranking alternatives in a decison making problem. It determines importance of the criteria with help of factor analysis. Though the alternatives are evaluated by each of the criteria by a group of experts, the weights for the criteria are to be found with the help of factor analysis.

The algorithm of the method is as follows:

1. Under the constraint that the problem handles several evaluation criteria, several items to compare (alternatives) and several experts to give their evaluation.

2. Find the principal components that replace the input criteria implicitly.

3. To find the final mark for each of the alternatives the marks given by experts are multiplied with the regression coefficients, found in the step 2.

4. The final marks are represented in axes „crieria“ and „mark“ so that each alternative is described with a curve (trajectory). These curves represent the map of graded alternatives. Depending on the problem to be solved (min or max,) a record for each main criteria is to be found.

5. With help of special deviation measure procedures (Minkowski, Chebyshev e.t.s) a matrix of deviations from ideal solution is to be built.

6. The alternatives are to be rated in accordance to the deviation from the ideal trajectory.

To prove the effectiveness of the method it was applied to a problem for 5 alternatives, 3 experts and 38 evaluation criteria. The problem was also solved with the help of most popular method of Weighted Sum Model (WSM) and TOPSIS method. The problem was also being solved by finding the geometric mean for each alternative. The results for approaches were compared and the method, offered in this abstrat, proved itself as a feasible one.

The paper presents the results of empirical research enterpreniur decision making process. The features of modern Russian entrepreneurship, decision-making process, psychological characteristics required for different types of decision-making in organizations is identified.

Soft Computing (SC) is a consortium of fuzzy logic (FL), neurocomputing (NC), evolutionary computing (EC), probabilistic computing (PC), chaotic computing (CC) and parts of machine learning theory (ML). SC is the foundation for computational intelligence and is leading to the development of numerous hybrid intelligent information, control and decision-making systems. The methodology of computing with words (CW) is an important event in the evolution of cognitive science, natural language processing, artificial intelligence, and different existing scientific theories. This is because CW can enrich the existing scientific theories and the above-mentioned science fields giving them the capability of using natural languages to operate on perception-based information, not only measurement-based information. Indeed in many real-world problems in natural sciences as well as in industrial engineering, economics, and business, often there is a need to deal with both perception and measurement based information. In the case of perception based information, the available information is not precise enough to justify the use of numbers. Such information is usually described in natural languages rather than in strict (idealized) mathematical expressions. So a strong need has appeared for a new approach, theory and technology for the development of knowledge representation, computing, and reasoning tools that allow creation of systems with high MIQ. The sessions of the ICSCCW-2011 will focus on the development and application of Soft Computing technology and computing with words paradigm in system analysis, decision and control.

The Seventh International Conference on Soft Computing, Computing with Words and Perceptions in System Analysis, Decision and Control aims at the development of Soft Computing and its Application is the Seventh of its kind. These fields have built upon mainly Fuzzy Logic originally introduced by L. Zadeh. Soft Computing (SC) is a consortium of fuzzy logic (FL), neurocomputing (NC), evolutionary computing (EC), probabilistic computing (PC), chaotic computing (CC) and parts of machine learning theory (ML). SC is the foundation for computational intelligence and is leading to the development of numerous hybrid intelligent information, control and decision making systems. The methodology of computing with words (CW) is an important event in the evolution of cognitive science, natural language processing, artificial intelligence, and different existing scientific theories. This is because CW can enrich the existing scientific theories and the above-mentioned science fields giving them the capability of using natural languages to operate on perception-based information, not only measurement-based information. Indeed, in many real-world problems in natural sciences as well as in industrial engineering, economics, and business, often there is a need to deal with both perception and measurement based information. In the case of perception based information, the available information is not precise enough to justify the use of numbers. Such information is usually described in natural languages or by means of visual images rather than in strict (idealized) mathematical expressions.So a strong need has appeared for a new approach, theory and technology for the development of knowledge representation, computing, and reasoning tools that allow creation of systems with high MIQ. The sessions of the ICSCCW-2013 will focus on the development and application of Soft Computing technology and computing with words paradigm in system analysis, decision and control.

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the Third International Conference on Belief Functions, BELIEF 2014, held in Oxford, UK, in September 2014. The 47 revised full papers presented in this book were carefully selected and reviewed from 56 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on belief combination; machine learning; applications; theory; networks; information fusion; data association; and geometry.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.

It is well-known that the class of sets that can be computed by polynomial size circuits is equal to the class of sets that are polynomial time reducible to a sparse set. It is widely believed, but unfortunately up to now unproven, that there are sets in EXPNP, or even in EXP that are not computable by polynomial size circuits and hence are not reducible to a sparse set. In this paper we study this question in a more restricted setting: what is the computational complexity of sparse sets that are *selfreducible*? It follows from earlier work of Lozano and Torán (in: Mathematical systems theory, 1991) that EXPNP does not have sparse selfreducible hard sets. We define a natural version of selfreduction, tree-selfreducibility, and show that NEXP does not have sparse tree-selfreducible hard sets. We also construct an oracle relative to which all of EXP is reducible to a sparse tree-selfreducible set. These lower bounds are corollaries of more general results about the computational complexity of sparse sets that are selfreducible, and can be interpreted as super-polynomial circuit lower bounds for NEXP.