Household Technology and the Sustainability of Consumer Behavior in Moscow
Consumers use appliances, and their concomitant technology, in their domestic routines. What role do these appliances play in shaping sustainable behavior on the part of the consumer? Scientists in this field believe that household devices have certain scenarios of use, which they refer to as “scripts.” Is change in the scripts associated with such devices the key to more sustainable consumption? This case study examined how consumers interpret and respond to the scripts of the devices they use in their everyday lives. Pro-environmentalist consumers were compared with those who have little concern about environmental problems. In-depth interviews found that the scripts embedded in domestic appliances were seen by the two groups in different ways, and the groups varied in how much influence the scripts had on consumer behavior. Consumers with few environmental concerns were found to be more likely to change to more pro-environmental behavior patterns following the technological scripts. The study also considered the generalizability of these results and their broader implications for practical action.
Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research is a compilation of the conference proceedings and the top papers presented each year at the Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC). BCERC is widely considered the premier research conference on entrepreneurship and the work truly exemplifies new frontiers in the discipline of entrepreneurship. Full text papers are peer reviewed; summaries, poster sessions and interactive papers are not.
The first volume involves the Russian Federation as a common denominator with either Norway (oldest multilateral region in the Arctic) or the United States (sharing with Russia the longest maritime boundary in the world) to interpret changes with connected biophysical and socio-economic systems that underscore decisions across a “continuum of urgencies” from security to sustainability time scales. The second and third volumes will emerge from presentations during the annual Arctic Frontiers Conferences in Tromsø, Norway, starting in January 2020. Volume 2 will consider circumstances associated with areas beyond sovereign jurisdictions from Arctic and non-Arctic perspectives, recognizing the international community has unambiguous rights and responsibilities in the Arctic High Seas under the law of the sea. Volume 3 is intended to synthesize insights on a pan-Arctic scale, analogous to the world ocean across all sea zones, involving decisions to achieve ongoing progress with sustainability, coupling governance mechanisms and built infrastructure. Throughout this book series, which we expect to expand beyond the Arctic, science diplomacy will be applied as an international, interdisciplinary, and inclusive (holistic) process, facilitating informed decisionmaking to balance national interests and common interests for the benefit of all on Earth across generations. With holistic integration, this book series will reveal skills, methods, and theory of informed decisionmaking that will continue to evolve, contributing to balance, resilience, and stability that underlie progress with sustainability across our home planet.
The chapter discusses the possibilities and limitations of different policy measures aimed at promoting behavior change at a large-group scale.
A sustainability perspective is a practical today's goal for collaboration of state, business and society. The special role within this triad belongs to business companies, which integrate the sustainability principles into their strategies to improve organizational processes and long-term growth. Quality management system (QMS) is an important tool to ensure sustainability through business performance. According to the International standard organization survey of QMS, more than 1 million certifications issued in 178 countries by 2010. The position according to which corporate management of sustainability by the help of QMS, which corresponds to international standard ISO 9000 is presented in the paper. The aim of the paper is to examine the factors, which affect organizational decision of the companies in the emerging countries to implement QMS ISO 9000. The impact of internal and external factors which influence managerial decision of QMS implementation is analyzed in the paper. Specifically, the similarities and differences between the motivations of companies from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), new members of the EU countries and countries of the Southern Europe (which aren’t the members of the EU) within the implementation of the QMS ISO 9000, are discussed. The empirical cross-country analysis is based on 2002–2009 data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS), conducted by the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The study identifies the role of economic development and institutional environment in the QMS ISO 9000 implementation. There are highlighted three “portraits” of companies, which implemented QMS: (a) from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries; (b) from the new EU members countries; (c) from the Southern Europe countries, which aren’t the members of the EU. The results show that QMS ISO 9000 implementation leads to increase of competitive ability and investment attractiveness of the company, to improvement of product quality and stakeholders communications, to human resources development. These business processes improvements, as a QMS implementation result, can potentially activate the company’s sustainable effects and then - national and global sustainability transformations.
In the article process maturity model selection as an effective tool for diagnosing vulnerability of logistics processes, the characteristic of the process maturity concept and a typology of maturity models used in logistics and supply chain management. Just describe the main stages of development maturity model of logistic processes, the proposed method is demonstrated by the development of maturity model to assess vulnerability of domestic construction companies regarding logistics risks.
The energy sector is one of the most regulated economic sectors in the world, making innovation more difficult than in other economic sectors. Further serious challenges for biofuels are that the average consumer (1) does not place additional value to the availability of different types of fuels and (2) does not yet accept paying more for biofuel with lower levels of pollutant emission. The increased use of biofuels hinges on the confluence of a variety of policies, such as energy, agricultural, environmental and industrial policies. This chapter juxtaposes the innovation systems for ethanol in Brazil and the United States, the two major global producers, evaluating their main strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis is placed on the coordination of energy policy with industrial and agricultural policies, environmental aspects and regulation. The chapter concludes with a general comparison of the two countries regarding the development of second-generation ethanol technologies (E2G). Brazil has a better structured market for ethanol use. However, the system shows significant inertia in terms of wide-scale adoption of E2G production technology. The United States has difficulties with market formation, but has taken a well-articulated set of actions to develop technology. A large part of technological development in the United States is done by startups with technologies often found in university research laboratories. In Brazil, technology development is dominated by research institutes and large firms. The technological evolution of E2G, intercropped with a raw material of high productivity (sugarcane), has the potential to make biofuels price competitive with fossil fuels. Despite the deep differences in terms of policy systems supporting innovation between the two countries, the results in terms of industrial production are quite close and indicate that both systems present conditions to transition to E2G.
Peculiarities of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems, predetermined by observation of the basic principles, are shown: constant monitoring of external environment for determining new possibilities and actual problems and determining the need for managerial decisions; founding on materials of marketing research, conduct of marketing communications for informing and supporting loyalty of interested parties in the process of implementation of decisions; and striving for increasing or at least preserving the uniqueness and effectiveness of business system during decision making (criterion of optimality of decisions).
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.