Обращения в регламентированных сферах общения: становление новой нормы
The article is an attempt to interpret the formation of new standards of the use of the forms of address in the regulated spheres of communication. The regulated communication is considered as a communication restricted by the rules of an organization or a socio-political institute, as well as the rules and standards of speech etiquette and corporate ethics adopted by an organization. It is noted that for modern linguistics are not typically occurring the conservative and restrictive perception of standards. A new view on the nature of the standard is being formed: the standard must be as close to the communicative situation as possible. The trends in the formation of the standards are identified on the basis of the observation over modern word usage, on the analysis of metalinguistic reflection of the native speakers and on the surveys of preferable choices of form of address in a particular communicative situation. In conclusion it is stressed that the new standards of functioning of the forms of address need further theoretical understanding of this problem, analysis and recommendations for the use of new forms.
The article considers communicative competence as a complex construct, in which the shared core of the English language is inseparable from a wider range of other skills and abilities. It allows for the author to single out specific structural components which may be, in the most general terms, grouped into four sections: components of communicative competence; individual factors influencing the personalized character of communicative performance, the nature of the communication context, and communicative mobility. The author analyses the nature of the components and outlines possible development for researching the interplay of factors and pedagogical implications.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.