College students' attitudes toward religion
American historian Paul Werth tell about contemporary state of Russian studies in the USA, his intellectual biography and the prospects of researches of religious freedom in Russia. Nowadays in America Russian studies and other country specific researches face with some problems. Nevertheless, the conferences are hold and the articles are published even in the regions, which are distant from the main scientific centers.
Paul Werth researches historical sources, which help to reconstruct the level of religious freedom in the tsar’s Russia. The historian analyzes interaction of religious institutes of Russian Empire and its administrative structure, national movements and ideological climate. Werth demonstrates that in the tsar’s epoch infringement of religious freedom was an effect of relationship between religious institutes and political, administrative and social structure of Empire, but not of religious world-view’s specifics.
The research of Russian Empire’s experience helps to draw the more general conclusion in the religion studies and social theory. The level of religious freedom is inversely proportional to usage of religion in the secular areas of the public sphere. But this observation can’t solve all the real problems. Of course, excessive usage of religious institutes by the government contradicts even the religious ideals. But the level of religious indifference, which we can see in the contemporary European and American society, is unacceptable for many believers. Is the religious indifference in the opposition to the right of confession’s freedom? Or it is the sole possible way to this freedom? Paul Werth considers, that every society should solve this question itself.
The article provides a study of the relationship between politics and religion in contemporary Russia. The authors analyze the materials of the survey “ Socio-Political Preferences of Russian Society” (number of people identifying themselves as Orthodox believers N=2,735), which showed that at least 21.1% of the sample make decisions concerning their electoral choices under direct influence of priests and fellow parishioners. The authors reveal the political forces who are beneficiaries of the Orthodox vote. They conclude that although the ruling “United Russia” is the main befenifiary, the effectiveness of the political support by the clergy largely depends on church attendance. Authors show that public expression of the priest’s opinion on political issues during the sermon is not that efficient as in the situation when undecided believers turn to priests with questions on political issues. The support of “United Russia” becomes most efficient when believers discuss their electoral choices within their church community.
The article deals with the media franchise “The Evil Dead” in the context of new religiousity. The author addresses the reasons of the increasing reputation of the franchise as an important phenomenon of popular culture which grew out from a low-budget independent film. This fame cannot be explained only by the fact that it has become a transmedia phenomenon (musical, theater, video games, comics, remake, TV series, etc.). The author clarifies the concepts of “popular culture” and “fantasy” and applies both to “The Evil Dead.” The article then discusses whether the franchise can be associated with a type of new religiosity referring to the concept of “hyper-real religion” by Adam Possamai. Such “religion” is based upon the products of popular culture and has only representations with no real referent (“simulacra”). Although “The Evil Dead” cannot be recognized as a proper hyper-real religion, it can be classified as a hyper-real cult. The concept is associated with the phenomenon of the cult cinema and includes some ritual practices of consumption by fans. The author believes that the demand for the franchise is explained, among other things, by the influence of Howard Lovecraft whose work is of particular importance in the context of hyper-real religion and, in particular, for the original trilogy of “The Evil Dead”.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.