This article provides an overview of the responses of British writers of the first half of the 20th century about Russia, the Russians and Russian literature. The opinions of the literary community are presented in chronological order, connected with the changes that have taken place in the country and in the world, they are illustrated by the statements from works, letters and articles. It is shown that the views of British writers on the image of Russia are often contradictory, based on established stereotypes, ethnocentrism or caused by the writer's personal outlook.
The paper introduces the concept of energy periphery to interrogate place-based perspectives on the co-production of uneven geographical development, energy vulnerabilities and low carbon transitions. Energy periphery is defined as places that are systematically disadvantaged through the whole energy system due to their inferior position within the asymmetrical spatial distribution of material, economic, political and symbolic resources and capabilities. Within an energy periphery, energy-related factors are combined with other place-based conditions to subject their communities to a compound and circular effect of precarious energy experiences. The notion of energy periphery is underpinned by insights from the spatial justice, core-periphery and energy justice theories. Using the case of Wales, the paper demonstrates the multi-dimensional and multi-scalar character of energy peripheralization, including political underrepresentation, the absence of economic agglomeration advantages, and dependence on off-grid fuels, energy inefficient homes and other ‘backward’ technologies and practices. Social and spatial contingencies of end-use energy vulnerability factors are outlined. Contrary to common discourses, energy transition further disadvantages energy peripheries and reproduces a fragmented socio-spatial landscape. The study overall demonstrates the importance of considering energo-socio-spatial relationships to better understand uneven energy transitions and social change more generally.
This paper problematizes the uneven nature of low carbon energy transitions in the context of uneven geographical development and core/periphery asymmetries. It explores the impacts of transition for peripheral communities lacking political power and agglomerative advantages. While decentralised developments that emerge with energy transition promise to bring new opportunities to remote areas, factors of economic and political inequalities render those opportunities socially and spatially segregated. Exploring experiences of rural and exurban communities in South Wales, the paper establishes links between low carbon transition and its actually existing implications on the ground. It demonstrates that even if having an abundance of natural resource and physical space to harness low carbon energy, many rural communities are trapped in the chronic positions of energy peripheralization.
The article begins with contextualising the Russian Empire’s many-fold presence in Persia at the fin de siècle and the condition of Russia’s Persian studies therein. As the results of undertaken archival research support, Russia’s ‘Iranists’ quite often had a crucial impact on the course of international affairs, securing and extending the sphere of Russian imperial influence not only in the Greater Persianate World but also directly affecting the peripeteia of European politics. Thus the article explores Vladimir Minorsky’s early scholarly and professional career as a budding diplomat of Imperial Russia and focuses on his participation in the 1913-1914 activities of the Russo-Brito-Turko-Iranian Quadripartite Boundary Commission, which, exactly one hundred years ago, drew almost 1200 miles of the Iranian present-day western frontier. Finally, the article reveals what implications the outcomes of these activities (whose inspirer was mainly Minorsky) have had for Iran during these hundred years, particularly in relation to the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war.
The paper draws on the conceptualisation of the interplay of power/knowledge relations, discourses, and institutional and personal interests. The study of Minorsky’s activities is carried out based on the unpublished materials derived from his private diaries and the testimonies of the British officers who were members of the Commission.
John Elphinstone (1722-1785) was a British post-captain who in 1769 received a commission to enter the imperial Russian navy with the rank of Rear-Admiral. Elphinstone was assigned to lead one of five squadrons that took part in the first Russian Archipelago Expedition (1769-1775), with which he sailed to the Eastern Mediterranean. In the waters of the Aegean Sea, his squadron blockaded the Dardanelles and took part in the famous Battle of Çeşme (July 1770). Soon after, he was recalled to St. Petersburg and dismissed from the Russian service. He died in London on 28 April 1785.
Russian Faith, Honour & Courage, Rear-Admiral John Elphinstone’s memoir about his time in the service of the imperial Russian navy in the reign of Empress Catherine II, covers his journey to the Eastern Mediterranean in 1769-1770 and subsequent developments relating to his service during that time. John Elphinstone’s original narrative contains descriptions of his voyage from the Baltic to the Mediterranean, movements through the Aegean Sea, and commentary on the activities of the Russian Navy, including one of the few first-hand accounts of the Battle of Çeşme. Elphinstone describes the peculiarities of Russian naval service and maritime culture, Anglo-Russian relations in the eighteenth century, and the ceremonies and rituals of the Russian court. The memoir is accompanied by a substantial critical introduction, situating the narrative and the journey in its historical setting, and extensive annotations and commentary based on research conducted in Russian and British archives.
Elphinstone’s original manuscript, along with a substantial collection of his papers, was acquired by the Manuscript Division of the Princeton University Library in 2003. The translation, introduction and annotations were prepared by Professor Elena B. Smilianskaia (National Research University - Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation) and Dr. Julia Leikin (University of Exeter, United Kingdom).
This study compares handgrip strength and its association with mortality across studies conducted in Moscow, Denmark, and England.
The data collected by the Study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia, the Study of Middle-Aged Danish Twins and the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins, and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing was utilized.
Among the male participants, the age-standardized grip strength was 2 kg and 1 kg lower in Russia than in Denmark and in England, respectively. The age-standardized grip strength among the female participants was 1.9 kg and 1.6 kg lower in Russia than in Denmark and in England, respectively. In Moscow, a one-kilogram increase in grip strength was associated with a 4% (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 0.99) reduction in mortality among men and a 10% (HR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.86, 0.94) among women. Meanwhile, a one-kilogram increase in grip strength was associated with a 6% (HR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.95) and an 8% (HR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.90, 0.94) decrease in mortality among Danish men and women, respectively, and with a 2% (HR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.97, 0.99) and a 3% (HR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.95, 0.98) reduction in mortality among the English men and women, respectively.
The study suggests that, although absolute grip strength values appear to vary across the Muscovite, Danish, and English samples, the degree to which grip strength is predictive of mortality is comparable across national populations with diverse socioeconomic and health profiles and life expectancy levels.