Социально-экономические факторы, влияющие на отношение индивидов к запрету на курение в общественных местах
The paper discusses factors that have impact on individual attitudes towards bans on smoking in a number of public places — hospitals, universities, work sites, sports facilities, cafes and restaurants, bars and clubs. Using data from national public opinion survey conducted in 2011 by Levada Center for HSE we show that support of smoking bans varies across types of public places and depends on different social and economic characteristics of individuals. Smoking is an important but not the only determining factor.
The general purpose of the study is to consider private/public interaction within a public place – Anticafe – with the help of Frame Analysis by E. Goffman. The results could advance our understanding of the logic of social construction of space.Tasks: 1) characterizing the practical production of private space within the public space in terms of frame-analysis;2) getting a list of keying for visitors antikafe / open spaces;3) getting a «legend» for each antikafe / open space on the basis of identified "signifying practices";4) comparison the «legend» of antikafe / open space and the observed behavior of visitors.Anticafe is usually described as an «unobstructed place, where people can meet and communicate». It is certainly a public place, however, it provides an opportunity to feel «at home», i.e. latently permits the transformation of the public space into the private one. The lack of understanding of how people use public space and how they draw boundaries between their «private» and «non-private» zones can be an obstacle for designers to create better public places in urban environment.The initial model is based on Frame Analysis by E. Goffman and the theory of the space invention by M. de Certeau. Participant observation and thick description provide a record of behaviors of Anticafe’s visitors. The estimated number of the objects (Anticafes) is three: “Ziferblat na Pokrovke”, “Local Time” and “Lodge”. The duration of observation includes one weekday, Friday and day-off (approximately 5-6 hours per observation) for each object. All the practices and situations were recoded into several frames (“At home”, “On a visit”, “In Café”, “In the Office”) and final results are presented as a list of keying.The research has shown that the monitoring objects, known as formally «equal», in fact turned out to be three different models of social organization of space, which implies different ways to regulate the conduct of individuals. People consciously design a private space within the public through a variety of practices. Varying degree of «privatizing the space» during the interaction allows individuals to solve the conflict of frames.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.