Развитие сферы образования и социализации в Российской Федерации в среднесрочной перспективе. Доклад экспертной группы
This report was prepared by the expert group “The New School”. This group was formed in February 2011 on behalf of the Russian Prime Minister to develop proposals for the Russian government to adjust the Program of the long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation up to 2020 year (the “Strategy 2020”) in education which was introduced in 2008. The focus of this report is not only the formal education system but the whole sphere of socialization and education of children and adolescents up to 18 years. In the first part of the report the authors analyze the current situation in the Russian system of school education. The authors attempt to identify not only problems of the Russian school system, but its advantages and benefits, and compare both positive and negative sides with other major world trends in education. The second part briefly describes possible scenarios of the development of education and socialization in the medium term and formulates a list of necessary steps for the immediate future and up to 2020 year.
The book Khroniki obrazovatelnoi politiki: 1991—2011 [Chronicles of the Educational Policy; 1991—2011] by Boris Startsev is a chronicle of modernization of the Russian secondary and higher education system in the period between 1991 and 2011 from the economic point of view. The events are seen through the eyes of a journalist and presented as a sequence of decisions by decision-makers. The reform is described using the names of ministers and top-ranking officials, and only rarely does one come across the opinions and names of teachers. The value of the book is in the integrity of the story about the process that has been modified more than once.
This paper sets out to analyse the need for better “transparency tools” which inform university stakeholders about the quality of universities. First, it gives an overview of what is understood by the concept of transparency tools and those that are currently available. Authors then critique current transparency tools’ methodologies, looking in detail at the question of data sources, the risks involved in constructing league tables and the challenges in using composite indicators. Lastly, authors argue in favour of developing a new principle for transparency tools: that of multidimensional ranking.
In this article we are talking about the early development of the educational process in one of England's North American colonies. Pennsylvania attracted many immigrants from Europe by its religious freedom. Moving to a new land, Europeans from different countries brought their way of life, including various systems of education. Therefore, at the end of the beginning of the XVII-XVIII centuries there were several different types of schools. The national education system, which appeared only in the XIX century has absorbed much of the colonists created.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.