Совмещение учёбы и работы студентами российских вузов
Combining work and study by students of Russian higher education institutions is studied from the viewpoint of how university quality and the set of financial, academic, social and demographic factors affect probability of student employment, and what motivates students to enter the labor market. The paper is based on the results of a 2013 survey among graduate students of Russian universities on their educational and career strategies conducted as part of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations project. Data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and regression analysis: influence of factors was assessed through a logistic binary choice model (logit regression). It is shown that the most positive effect on probability of combining work and study is given by such factors as learning in a leading university, studying a Master’s degree, specializing in areas of study connected with foreign languages, mathematics, computer programming, design, architecture, and culturology. Receiving no financial support from family, studying on a state-funded basis, and being male also increase probability of student employment significantly. The research performed has allowed to suggest hypothetically that combining work and study is most often caused by desire to gain work experience, with more talented students working more often, obviously. By doing so, students try to get to look more productive, which may later bring an economic profit to them in the labor market. These hypotheses require further examination.
The main goal of the secondary vocational education system is to fulfill the staffing needs of the Russian economy. The only way that we can effectively deliver on this objective is by ensuring there is a well-coordinated and stable system in place that allows vocational schools to cooperate with businesses. This article reviews how this cooperative relationship has changed over time, from the Soviet centrally planned model to the advent of market mechanisms. The authors pay particular attention to the specific features that distinguish the Russian labor market and the nature of youth employment in Russia, and they also examine the particular means and models whereby the vocational education system is able to “read signals” that emanate from the labor market and to quickly respond to these signals.
The article’s findings may be of interest to administrators who work in the secondary vocational education system, experts as well as to anyone who takes an interest in the relationship between the secondary vocational educational system and the labor market.
This paper analyses the impact of academic achievement on future salaries by looking into the grade point average (GPA)-earnings relationship for graduates of a leading Russian university. The study is based on pooled cross-sectional graduate survey data for 2014–2015. The issue of how student academic achievement impacts future labour market rewards is analysed through academic, demographic and labour market factors. We found that there is a significant positive impact of GPA on salaries of BA graduates (9–12% wage premium for an additional GPA point) and an insignificant or negative impact for MA programmes graduates. The study depicts that this negative effect can be partially explained by employment sector-specific variables. Among the main factors which positively affect earnings of graduates is work experience. Graduates who combined study and work achieve a 30% wage premium. However, there is no evidence that combining study and work affects student academic achievement, even for those who combined studies with full-time job. Despite the higher GPA of female students, male graduates’ earnings are 18% higher. Gender wage differences can be explained by gender distribution by the sector of employment: the over-representation of women in the low-paid education and science sectors and their under-representation in entrepreneurship and corporate sector.
Using retrospective data from the Russian Education and Employment Survey, we examine labour market entry in Russia in terms of changes in horizontal gender segregation and vertical gender inequalities before and after the collapse of the Soviet regime in 1991. Our results provide evidence for horizontal gender segregation across branches of the economy among labour market entrants in Russia, which have been growing since 1991. Moreover, horizontal differences seem to be driving vertical gender inequalities in terms of entry into authoritative positions. Accounting for heterogeneity in education and the entered branch, we ﬁnd that despite gender equality principles and full-time employment for women, vertical gender inequalities had already existed under the Soviet regime. However, these increased during the liberalization reforms. These growing vertical gender inequalities can be traced back mainly to a worsening of female chances in an economic transition, whereas there was no signiﬁcant change for male entrants. Furthermore, women seem to be particularly disadvantaged among highly qualiﬁed entrants. We conclude that Russian female entrants have not fully converted their educational advantage into occupational opportunities since the transition from socialism to a liberalized market economy.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.