More and more middle school graduates opt for vocational schools every year. They are normally less academically successful students from lower economicand cultural backgrounds. Still, the vocational education system must provide the chance to have a quality general education to anyone who follows this trajectory after the ninth grade. The article uses findings of the Trajectories in Education and Careers longitudinal study to compare the important conditions of obtaining a general mathematical education, i. e. the professional and demographic characteristics of vocational and high school teachers and their teaching practices. The comparison reveals an inequality in students’ access to educational resources depending on the chosen trajectory.The differences revealed are related to the institutional characteristics of the two trajectories and make it possible to say that the latter embrace different types of general education.
Today is still little known about regional inequality in education in Russia. In this article, we, on the one hand, analyze regional differences in educational resources in their association with regions’ socio-economic characteristics. On the other hand, we estimate relationship of regions’ socio-economic characteristics and educational resources with the proportion of students remaining in high school as well as with the average results of the Unified State Exam (end of high school test) in two compulsory subjects - Russian and math. We test theories of effectively maintained inequality and maximally maintained inequality with the use of data of Russia regions that we retrieve in open sources – publications of Rosstat, federal and regional education agencies. To estimate the relationship we use correlation and regression analysis. Our results show that more urbanized regions with higher level of human capital and GRP are usually characterized by the higher level of school expenditures, more experienced teachers, and higher chances for students to study at the advanced level. The same time, the level of urbanization and human capital is positively related to the proportion of students that choose academic trajectory after finishing secondary school. Finally, the results of the Unified State Exam are also positively associated with access to educational resources. In both subjects, the average test score is higher in the regions with higher proportion of students in lyceums/gymnasiums and in schools with advanced study of the subjects. In Russian, the exam results are also related to the proportion of students remaining in high school. In general, regional inequality in access to educational resources overlaps with socio-economic differences which produces a situation of double loss or double advantage. Bigger access to better educational resources in regions with higher human capital supports effectively maintained inequality theory. The same time the fact that less proportion of students choose academic trajectory after grade 9 in regions with less human capital could be an evidence of maximally maintained inequality. The article could be interesting to readers whose study relates to problems of education inequality and education policy.
From the first years of existence of Belarus as an independent state the educational policies were directed at preserving the "best in the world" Soviet higher education. In realistic terms the Belarusian system of higher education was "resovetized". Meanwhile, the thesis of world supremacy of Soviet higher education has been critically rethought by modern researchers and has long been no longer self-evident. On this basis arise two questions: what allows us to call the Soviet higher education system “better”? Is it legitimate and in what respect to consider the Belarusian higher education system as an successor of the best achievements of Soviet higher education? The author of the article answers these questions based on the explication of the genesis and comparative analysis of the Soviet and Belarusian higher education systems in three key parameters: management, quality and the social dimension. The paper substantiates the thesis that the Belarusian system of higher education is close to the Soviet higher school of the 1930–40s in the style of management, in the 1950s in the quality of education, in the 1940–50s. by social dimension and the end of the 1980s. by the nature of the accumulated problems.
The monograph presents domestic and foreign experience in monitoring education throughout life. The toolkit for monitoring continuing education is proposed
The paper analyzes the principle of the modular approach, and in analyzing the main obuchenii.Rassmotreny printsipypy modular training behind him osnove.Pokazano that the modular training focused on the learning process of students. Training modules allows invarianteost bachelor's and master's degrees, and allows you to instantly adapt the learning process to any group of learners
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.