Load balancing algorithms based on gradient methods and their analysis through algebraic graph theory
The main results of this paper are based on the idea that most load balancing algorithms can be described in the framework of optimization theory. It enables to involve classical results linked with convergence, its speed and other elements. We emphasize that these classical results have been found independently and till now this connection has not been shown clearly. In this paper, we analyze the load balancing algorithm based on the steepest descent algorithm. The analysis shows that the speed of convergence is determined by eigenvalues of the Laplacian for the graph of a given load balancing system. This consideration also leads to the problems of choosing an optimal structure for a load balancing system. We prove that these optimal graphs have special Laplacians: the multiplicities of their minimal and maximal positive eigenvalues must be greater than one. Such a property is essential for strongly regular graphs, investigated in algebraic graph theory.
The paper studies the problem of achieving consensus in multi-agent systems in the case where the dependency digraph Γ has no spanning in-tree. We consider the regularization protocol that amounts to the addition of a dummy agent (hub) uniformly connected to the agents. The presence of such a hub guarantees the achievement of an asymptotic consensus. For the “evaporation” of the dummy agent, the strength of its influences on the other agents vanishes, which leads to the concept of latent consensus. We obtain a closed-form expression for the consensus when the connections of the hub are symmetric; in this case, the impact of the hub upon the consensus remains fixed. On the other hand, if the hub is essentially influenced by the agents, whereas its influence on them tends to zero, then the consensus is expressed by the scalar product of the vector of column means of the Laplacian eigenprojection of Γ and the initial state vector of the system. Another protocol, which assumes the presence of vanishingly weak uniform background links between the agents, leads to the same latent consensus.
We consider optimization methods for convex minimization problems under inexact information on the objective function. We introduce inexact model of the objective, which as a particular cases includes inexact oracle  and relative smoothness condition . We analyze gradient method which uses this inexact model and obtain convergence rates for convex and strongly convex problems. To show potential applications of our general framework we consider three particular problems. The first one is clustering by electorial model introduced in . The second one is approximating optimal transport distance, for which we propose a Proximal Sinkhorn algorithm. The third one is devoted to approximating optimal transport barycenter and we propose a Proximal Iterative Bregman Projections algorithm. We also illustrate the practical performance of our algorithms by numerical experiments.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.
This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.