La reforma pendiente del Servicio Europeo de Acción Exterior y sus implicaciones en la política de seguridad de la Unión Europea
The aim of this article is the analysis of the European External Actions Service’ shortfalls, the structural ones as well as the conjunctural ones, the assessment of the draft reform submitted by the European Union High Representative for foreign and security issues and the proposal, if any, of reform guidelines to improve this policy, also to be reviewed, mainly according to the European Council conclusions in December 2013.
The primary task of this article is identifying and discussing some of the le-gal problems which arise from autonomous restrictive measures under EU law, particularly in the context of measures adopted against third countries. The article explores the differences between various sanction regimes as well as the legal basis and procedures in betaking particular types of restric-tive measures. The main part of the article is centered on the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice with regards to the control of legality of re-strictive measures imposed on individuals. It reviews the changes that oc-curred in this sphere after the Lisbon Treaty and analyses the case-law of the Court regarding the protection of fundamental rights – the rights for de-fense, property rights and proportionality of sanctions. Finally, the article explores the issues that are more characteristic to the third counties’ sanction regimes. First, the judicial control of whether the listing of specific persons is justified in regard to the listing criteria established by the Council, particu-larly within the notion of “rulers and individuals associated with them”. And, second, the most recent trend demonstrated by the Court is controlling the determine these criteria in accord with their compatibility with the princi-ples of legal certainty and with respect to fundamental human rights. This new trend seems to be particularly important in the context of sanctions against Russia resulted from Ukrainian crisis.
The article presents the results of qualitative research of the dynamics of close relations of man and woman. Phenomenological analysis of respondent`s interviews allowed to identify the microstructure of a relationship that fell apart: the stages of their transformation and substantial content, specific to each stage. The essential contents of the relationships between man and woman, which continue to develop and become closer, despite the fact that they had a crisis, also have been shown. Recommendations for psychological consultation of the clients making the decision on continuation or the termination of the close interpersonal relations are formulated.
The article is devoted to the history and problems of creating interfaces. Shows the complexity and importance of effective interfaces, noted that this problem is a system of multilevel interdisciplinary. The new systems should be given serious attention to issues of human efficiency level. Man is still the leading element in determining the efficiency of any ergatic system. The main means of control in ergatic systems including computers, is the graphic manipulator (GM), with which to control the on-screen controls. Are the main styles of user interface. The most popular are GUI-interface (GUI - GraphicalUserInterface) and based on them WUI-interface (WUI-WebUserInterface). The development of equipment and technology of computer modeling led to the active introduction of virtual reality technology to ensure the inclusion of people in artificial worlds. Their main feature - full control of all the parameters of the development and the emergence of a sense of presence in people who live in these environments, which are called immersive. Technology induced environments allow a number of new, not generally applicable to the present, of interfaces using specially engineered virtual environments. Much attention is paid to creating the most advanced systems - systems contact management, which are the camera and sophisticated software. The drawbacks of modern non-contact control. Is being developed to create a contactless intelligent interface, which will allow: to control with data from a video camera, which is installed on your computer have a high noise immunity, clearly identify the user to recognize the situational environment, have an acceptable cost.