Towards a classification of risks
In this article, we propose a system for ordering threats by their composition and their substantial types using the technique of classification matrices. It goes without saying that this system does not automatically warrant meaningful results, but it permits to: - Structure the prevailing intuitive conceptions about threats - Discuss the various approaches toward a classification of threats and their orders of preference within a single conceptual framework. - Automatically transform the matrices obtained into an ontology of the text analysis program GITIKA for thematic classification, rubricator building and conceptual search. - Obtain structured information about the status of the information space concerning the presence and the intensity of threats which is made available to municipalities, regions and the state as a whole. - Link the information about the presence and acuteness of threats to social groups, behavioral types and other factors which are significant for administrators.
Misery loves company. In this paper we find that inequity aversion (the change in behavior out of a desire to avoid unequal outcomes) can alter risk attitudes and, in particular, can mitigate loss aversion (the change in behavior and risk attitudes out of desire to avoid losses). Essentially, having someone to take a loss with removes some of the pain of losing. A model of decision making under risk in social context is constructed and tested empirically in laboratory experiments. Social context is understood as the ability to affect, as well as to observe choices and outcomes of others.
Nowdays normative legal acts adopting by the government are aimed at improving the efficiency of public expenditures, associated with the stimulation of economic development. A lot of new budgetary tools are entered in our economy. Nevertheles, practical implementation of new mechanisms and tools is enough slow. This situation focuses on the efficiency of public expendirures of all budgetary levels. In accordance with the global experience, the drastic increase of the efficiency and impact of pulic expenditures can be achieved only by the way of creating the modern system of financial management in government, one of the most important part of which is an internal control and audit.
Active vocabulary for business English students based on the business coursebook "Market Leader". The focus is on the development and mastering of business English active vocabulary for the Business Studies.
The article describes the use of Excel programme for risk assessment models: method of sensitivity analysis, scenarios method, Monte-Carlo method.
long-term investment project, risk, method of sensitivity analysis, Scenario method, method of Monte Carlo simulation
Elements of functional safety of electronic systems which depends on electromagnetic compatibility are considered. Classification of dangers, risks, a damage is given. Recommendations on design of electronic systems which are meeting the requirements of functional safety are given.
The chapter offers three analytical cases put together as a result of non-formalized face-to-face interviews. it is shown how different manufacturing enterprises - mature chemical firm within the vertically intergated holding, new machine-building plant which serve the demand of resource sector and the relatively new company with the foreign owner - undertake technological innovations. The barriers, motivations and risks which influence the decisions to innovate are descrived. In the end, we show how innovations affect the competitiveness.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.