Энергетика как базис привлечения инвестиций в инновационное развитие России
In modern conditions of economic and innovative development of the countries there is a tendency of the growing use of innovation to stimulate the economy in the resource sector. Russia is a country with a huge territory and diverse climatic zones, the resource potential of which is several times greater than all the energy production in the world. Nevertheless, this region is not developed enough and is a field for the development of innovations and attraction of additional investments in the innovative development of the country economy. This article is devoted to the analysis of the level of innovation development in the domestic and foreign energy complex. Carried out a comparative analysis, which allows the authors to identify the most effective measures, carried out modernization in the sphere of innovation development of the energy sector, on the basis of which are offered directions of improvement of the domestic investment attractiveness of the innovative development in the energy complex.
Proactivity in the behavior of employees is a desirable attribute of a modern organization striving for innovation, which is prepared to meet the constant challenges of a technological society. Proactivity at the individual and organizational levels is characterized by the mindset of employees to transformation, useful activity, long-term planning and initiative, which brings the organization towards innovation. The goal of the study is to identify the indirect relationships between perceived organizational culture and proactivity. Our hypothesis is the existence of a positive relationship between innovative organizational culture and proactivity through the following mediators: innovative self-efficacy and autonomy. The importance of innovative culture for proactivity is illustrated by the hypothesis of the negative indirect effect of bureaucratic culture on proactivity through the same mediators. The unconventional approach of of the study –– investigation of organizational characteristics useful for innovation through students' perception of their activities at the university. This idea stems from the similarity of the attributes of a modern, constantly learning innovative organization with the characteristics of a university of a new format - with design work, academic mobility and competitive environment. As a result, the regression analysis of the mediation model involving 191 students from different faculties of the university showed a significant indirect effect of innovative organizational culture on personal and organizational proactivity through innovation self-efficacy. The bureaucratic culture, on the contrary, did not have an indirect negative effect on both levels of perceived proactivity. Additional analysis revealed direct relationships between the innovation/bureaucratic organizational culture and autonomy: an innovative culture has a positive direct relationship with autonomy, and a bureaucratic culture has a negative direct relationship. Thus, it is possible to talk about the benefits of an innovative organizational culture for the proactive personality and organizational member proactivity, provided the individual maintains a high innovation self-efficacy - belief in his/her ability to innovate. In practical application, the research contributes to one of the future scenarios of an innovative organization aimed at learning, employee independence and hierarchy reduction, and also utilizes characteristics rarely studied in Russian organizational psychology: proactivity and innovation self-efficacy.
This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
When a major Russian energy provider introduced a new technology that required organisational adjustment, the company’s management was surprised by the degree of internal resistance these changes provoked. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
The authors took reference to the work on readiness to change and studied how the future time perspective, which connects with early writings by Lewin (1942), would explain the attitudes and behaviour of 148 managers.
The findings indicate that only a small number of employees perceived the future as offering many opportunities and showed willingness to pursue them. The majority of employees are either fearful of future changes, or do not have a strong sense of belonging to the company and hence are disinterested in prospective opportunities within the firm.
The different constructs of the future introduce an emic perspective to the study of organisational change and answer calls to enrich the measurements that are currently in use.
The article is devoted to the theoretical features of innovations in the field of public administration. The subject of the research is the concept of innovation in public administration. The goal is to substantiate the relationship between successful innovation, institutional transformations and their ideological support. The main tasks are a description of the differences in the traditional understanding of the content of innovation and its content in the field of public administration, a description of the factors contributing to or hindering successful innovation in the field in question, an analysis of the relationship between the innovation activity of employees in the public service and institutional transformations. The conclusion is drawn on the importance of the trinity of technological, institutional and ideological innovations in the context of the goals and objectives of national economic development.
The paper considers how the productivity and innovations of Russian regions are associated with the heterogeneity of the population by ethno-linguistic affiliation, as well as by country and region of origin. The study contributes to the corpus of papers on economic impact of cultural diversity with the focus on Russia and addresses questions what are the spatial effects of the impact. We find positive associations of the productivity with population heterogeneity by country and region of origin, and the knowledge generation with heterogeneity within the group of immigrants. Our results also contribute to the economic policy by obtaining positive significant spatial effects for the productivity and knowledge creation for Russian regions and by defining main significant factors for these effects.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing S&T and innovation potential of the Russian Federation. There are the information about intellectual property, S&T output, data of international comparisons given.
The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service, Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Eurostat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, national statistical services of foreign countries, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge.
In some cases, the presented data specify those published earlier.
Despite the widespread use of project and program management methodologies in various fields of practical activity, they have not yet become widespread in the venture capital business. An attempt was made to find common ground between these two areas that are developing rapidly today and to assess the prospects for their closer integration.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management