В главе рассматривается установление дипломатических отношений между Испанией и Россией и оценивается роль Петра I в этом процессе. Особое внимание уделяется развитию торговых отношений между двумя странами. В тексте использованы новые архивные документы.
Each developing country tries to catch up with the developed world. Unfortunately, only few economies were able to reach this purpose during last sixty years. Well-known Gershenkonђs argument - «advantage of backwardness» - does not work properly in most cases [Gershenkon, 1962]. Though imitations of technologies and governance methods are much cheaper than innovations, the imitation process is also costly and requires sophisticated approaches of choosing and harmonizing different kinds of economic policies.
Способность компаний к обмену технологическими знаниями является значимым фактором инновационного развития. Для стран, отстающих от лидеров инновационного развития, особенно важна способность фирм получать и использовать новые технологические знания из-за рубежа. Цель данного исследования заключается в поиске связи между качеством инновационного процесса и абсорбцией зарубежных технологических знаний. Для этого в работе проводится выявление динамической структуры инновационной деятельности и сопоставление доминирующих в ней типов инновационных процессов с масштабами абсорбции разных типов зарубежных технологических знаний. Тип инновационного процесса определяется качеством его результата, которое в свою очередь соотносится с рыночной и технологической новизной продукции предприятий, осуществляющих технологические инновации.
Attributing a particular property to a person by naming another person, who is typically wellknown for the respective property, is called a Vossian Antonomasia (VA). This subtpye of metonymy, which overlaps with metaphor, has a specific syntax and is especially frequent in journalistic texts. While identifying Vossian Antonomasia is of particular interest in the study of stylistics, it is also a source of errors in relation and fact extraction as an explicitly mentioned entity occurs only metaphorically and should not be associated with respective contexts. Despite rather simple syntactic variations, the automatic extraction of VA was never addressed as yet since it requires a deeper semantic understanding of mentioned entities and underlying relations. In this paper, we propose a first method for the extraction of VAs that works completely automatically. Our approaches use named entity recognition, distant supervision based on Wikidata, and a bi-directional LSTM for postprocessing. The evaluation on 1.8 million articles of the New York Times corpus shows that our approach significantly outperforms the only existing semi-automatic approach for VA identification by more than 30 percentage points in precision.
The presentation considers the problem of the academic heterogeneity among universities freshmen. This problem is widely discussed in circumstances of demographic decline when higher education becomes widespread. As a result differentiation of universities based on the quality of students' freshmen arises: some universities admit predominately high-scored students, while the others have a large variation in students’ preparation level. Universities have to work with non-uniform contingent of students. In Russia the Unified State Exam (USE) is used to admit students to the universities. There are two obligatory exams (Mathematics and Russian language) and different optional exams which students can choose depending on their future direction of study. Scores for USE are the only basis for students’ admission to universities. The points of interest are simultaneously the quality of admission and its heterogeneity. Heterogeneity implies differences in the student’s USE scores in one university. The data base includes USE scores of all students enrolled in all universities in 2011-2012 in the context of different majors. The procedure of academic heterogeneity investigation has been developed with the 5-points scale of heterogeneity levels. There are two types of issues in this research. The first one includes the analysis of academic heterogeneity indicators over years and the classification of universities based on their heterogeneity. The second issue concerns intra-university level and includes the following points: • Identification of factors that influence academic heterogeneity of enrolled students • Analysis of heterogeneity in the context of different majors • Analysis of the dynamics of academic heterogeneity over the years • The university contribution to the dynamics of heterogeneity during the period of education. • Recommendations for dealing with heterogeneous contingent of students. For assessing student’s heterogeneity traditional statistical methods were applied as well as mathematical modeling based on Item Response Theory (IRT). The use of IRT methods allows us to place all the data on the unique metric scale, construct classification of universities on the quality of admission and assess heterogeneity. Despite the differences in the systems of state exams and the academic selectivity in various countries the methods developed can be used to assess the heterogeneity of university freshmen in each country.
In the chapter concerning inbreeding in Russian universities the authors draw data from several sources (studies of higher educational sector in Russia and statistics from the Ministry of education and science and Russian Statistical Agency) to estimate consequences of inbreeding on micro and macro levels.
About AICT2015 Conference: On behalf of the Steering Committee, we welcome you to the 9th International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies (AICT2015) devoted to 100th anniversary of Southern Federal University will be held in Rostov-on-Don, Russia on the 14, 15 and 16th of October 2015. The AICT2015 Conference will build on the success of the previous conferences, which were held in Astana, Baku, Tashkent and Tbilisi. - See more at: http://aict.info/2015/#sthash.NfiISWrf.dpuf
This articles deals with the problems of assessment for Korean Language students at HSE.The author made an effort to show new Korean language assessment criteria for grammar, speaking, reading and writing skills.
As any other genre, academic paper can be characterized by its own specific rules and features. The authors assume that academic style fitches called in this research “style markers” can be modelled by means of ontology engineering. The article is aimed at describing the academic style markers ontology design and its practical using. The designed ontology is divided into two levels. The first level provides information about linguistic terms and the second level consists of style markers, which were suggested by experts in linguistic. It is assumed that two tasks will be solved on the basis of developed ontology. The first task is generating lexical-semantic templates, which is used to identify the list of markers in a text. Due to ontology approach and Domain Specific Language (DSL) technologies applying users can be able to extend and modify marker templates. The second task is developing an expert system rules for text style enhancement.