Как следует из самой идеи дискурса, он не принимается в рассмотрение без учета конкретного случая его создания и употребления, поскольку он отражает социальные, политические и культурные особенности своих участников. В то же время в дискурсе могут переплетаться «голоса» других дискурсов, что провоцирует возникновение новых оттенков смыслов. Особенности этого процесса – «интердискурсивность» - положены в основу данной статьи. Он проиллюстрирован примерами из победной речи Б.Обамы (2008), связанными с популярными в Америке песнями, что придает речи особую музыкальность.
This paper pertains mainly to art cognitonics, it is a significant branch of cognitonics, or the science about the human being in the digital world. The first aim of the paper is to consider a way of achieving cognitive engagement of the adolescents and university students at lectures on art cognitonics. The central idea is to expand the conceptual universe of the learners by means of messages conveyed by outstanding canvases and sculptures. Art cognitonics changes the perception of a work of art by the beholder in comparison with the traditional approach. The second aim is to state a new conception of a sci-fi museum (a science fiction museum), this conception is underpinned by cognitonics. The principal idea of the new conception is the creation of a thought-provoking space aiming at stimulating the process of perception of the power of thought, regarding thought as a value.
The Arctic region is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable to climate change. The dramatic melting of Arctic ice has several negative consequences for the whole ecosystem as well as for a way of life of native people but it also creates new opportunities for the region. First, it opens up potential for exploitation of large deposits of natural resources such oil and gas. Second, it shrinks Arctic shipping routes which offer significant economic savings for many countries. These benefits has already attracted many countries, both Arctic and non-Arctic, thus resulting in potential conflict of interests. In our paper we present a mathematical approach to the problem of conflict resolution in the Arctic. First, we propose an approach how the level of interest in each part of the region should be evaluated with respect to main resources - oil, gas, fish and maritime routes. Second, we present several models of areas allocation to resolve the problem of conflict resolution. As a result, we applied several scenarios of areas allocation, evaluated their efficiency based on the total satisfaction level and identified conflict zones in the Arctic.
Though the issue of economic cycles has been subject to numerous studies, this problem has retained its high importance. What is more, the current crisis has confirmed in an extremely convincing way the point that, notwithstanding all the successes achieved by many states in their countercyclical policies, no economy is guaranteed against uncontrollable upswings and unexpected crises and recessions that tend to follow such upswings. In addition to this, the financial globalization has increased substantially the risks of such cyclical fluctuations.
The notion of economic cycles is regarded ambiguously in economic science. In modern theories, business cycles are frequently defined as fluctuations of actual output around its potential value which is achieved in full employment conditions (see, e.g., Fischer, Dornbusch, and Schmalensee 1988). However, quite frequently economics does not achieve on the rise the potential GDP volume when a recession phase starts (such situations are described in more detail in Гринин, Коротаев 2009а: ch. 1). Thus, economic cycle, in our opinion, can be defined as periodical fluctuation around medium line of production volume, where repeating phases of rise and decrease can be specified.
In the model that we propose below we have tried to briefly describe the main features of medium-term cycles of business activity, or business cycles (7–11 years) that are also known as Juglar cycles after the prominent 19th-century French economist Clement Juglar (1819–1905), who investigated these cycles in detail (Juglar 1862, 1889).
 Many economists maintain that business cycles are quite regular with the characteristic period of 7–11 years. However, some suggest that economic cycles are irregular (see, for example, Fischer, Dornbusch, and Schmalensee 1988). As we suppose, comparative regularity of business cycles is observed rather at the World System scale than in every country taken separately. This corroborates the important role of exogenous factors for the rise and progress of business cycles (for more detail see below).
 Medium-term cycles (7–11 years) were first named after Juglar in works by Joseph Schumpeter, who developed the typology of different-length business-cycles (Schumpeter 1939, 1954; see also Kwasnisсki 2008).
Previously, a mathematical model of primary tumor (PT) growth and secondary distant metastasis (sdMTS) growth in breast cancer (BC) (CoMPaS), considering the TNM classification, was presented. Nowadays, the updated model CoMPaS and the corresponding software tool can help to optimize the process of detecting the different diagnostic periods for sdMTSs in BC patients with different tumor subtypes ER/PR/HER2/Ki-67 and the growth rate of the PT and sdMTSs.
América Central, también llamada Centroamérica*, es un subcontinente que conecta América del Norte con América del Sur. Geográficamente se situa entre la fronreta de México y la frontera noroccidental de Colombia, rodeada por el océano Pacífico y el océano Atlántico. Políticamente se divide en los 7 países independientes de Guatemala, Belice, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panamá. Su extensión territorial es de 523.780 km2 y su población es de unos 41.739.000 habitantes. El territorio cubre una superficie un poco mayor que la de España. Prodiga en recursos naturales, su suelo es sumamente fértil, apto para todo tipo de cultivos. El canal de Panamá además de facilitar la comunicación marítima entre dos océanos se hizo en América Central un paso obigado para los buques de todo el mundo. El subcontinente tiene todo para atraer al turismo internacional: hermosas playas, selvas, montañas, volcanes, apasibles lagos, ruinas de antiguas civilizaciones, etc. Pero la región aún está a la espera de que sus gobiernos encaren tres duros desafíos: vencer la pobreza, consolidar sus débiles democracias y apagar los odios que dejaron los largos años de guerras civiles en sus países.
Sign languages are the main way for people from deaf community to communicate with other people. In this paper, we have compared several real-time sign language dactyl recognition systems using deep convolutional neural networks. Our system is able to recognize words from natural language gestured using signs for each letter. We evaluate our approach on American (ASL) and Russian (RSL) sign languages. For ASL, we trained on dataset prepared by Massey University, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, for RSL we collect our own dataset, which we aim to enlarge together with RSL community in Russia. The results showed 100% accuracy for ASL Massey dataset, while RSL recognition quality is behind sufficient quality due to much more complex nature of real-world RSL dataset.
Sign language is the main way to communicate for people from deaf community. However, common people mostly do not know sign language. In this paper, we overview several real-time sign language dactyl recognition systems using deep convolutional neural networks. These systems are able to recognize dactylized words gestured by signs for each letter. We evaluate our approach on American (ASL) and Russian (RSL) sign languages. This solution may help fasten the process of communication for deaf people. On the contrary, we also present the algorithm for generating sign animation from text information using text-to-sign video vocabulary, which helps to integrate sign language in dubbed TV and combining with speech recognition tool provide full translation from natural language to sign language.