Комплексный анализ социально-экономических последствий вступления Китая, Украины и России в ВТО по различным отраслям экономики позволил выработать рекомендации для наиболее успешной адаптации России к нормам ВТО. Акцент сделан на опыте Китая. Практика его участия в ВТО крайне полезна для России с позиций позитивного влияния на развитие экономики страны, когда с одной стороны, идет расширение промышленного и производственного секторов экономики, продвижение товаров на мировых рынках, а с другой, есть возможность использовать правовые инструменты ВТО для защиты национального внутреннего рынка.
Положительный опыт участия в ВТО Китая несколько контрастирует с приведенным опытом Украины. Оценка многовекторной политики Украины и ее ассоциирование с ЕС позволила сделать вывод о невозможности этой страны идти одновременно по пути и евразийской и европейской интеграции.
Обострившееся в последнее время торгово-экономическое и политическое противоборство России с американскими и европейскими партнерами подталкивает к кардинальному изменению государственной экономической стратегии. Определить направления таких трансформаций поможет постижение как положительного, так и отрицательного опыта продвижения в мировое экономическое пространство давних торговых партнеров России – Китая и Украины.
Был ли у Холодной войны «правовой фронт»? Каким образом Холодная Война влияла на развитие права стран участниц и международного права? Можно ли определить действие «фактора Холодной войны» в праве и политике прошлого и настоящего? На эти вопросы пытаются ответить историки, юристы и политологи, чьи статьи объединены в сборнике. Кроме научных статей, сборник также содержит исторические документы: фотографии участников правового диалога и их автобиографические записки. Книга предназначена для историков, политологов и правоведов.
This book manuscript explores why dominant political parties emerge in some authoritarian regimes, but not in others. A dominant party is a strong ruling party that determines access to political offices, shares powers over policy-making and patronage distribution, and uses privileged access to state resources to maintain its position in power. Such dominant parties exist in about half the world’s autocracies. Prominent historical and recent examples include the PRI in Mexico, UMNO in Malaysia, the NDP in Egypt, the PDP in Nigeria, Nur-Otan in Kazakhstan, and, the primary focus of this book, United Russia in Russia. Political scientists have recently come to understand that dominant parties help autocrats win elections, reduce elite conflict, and, thereby, fortify authoritarian rule. If this is so, why do leaders and elites in many non-democratic regimes refrain from building strong ruling parties? Political scientists have yet to provide a clear answer to this question. In this book, I offer an explanation for why some regimes create these parties, but others do not. In turn, by demystifying the origins of dominant parties, this study advances our understanding of why some countries democratize, while others remain authoritarian. In contrast to existing theories of autocratic institutions, which focus mostly on the incentives of leaders to construct institutions, I argue that dominant parties are the product of decisions by both leaders and other elites. Specifically, I argue that dominant parties emerge when elites—such as governors, chiefs, warlords, oligarchs, landlords, strongmen, bosses, regional barons, and prominent politicians—hold enough independent political resources that leaders need to coopt them, but not so many autonomous resources that they themselves are reluctant to commit to a dominant party project. The book explores this argument and its implications with a multi-method empirical approach that combines within-country qualitative and quantitative analyses with cross-national statistical tests. Much of the book focuses on the process of ruling party formation (and non-formation) in contemporary Russia. In a span of just over 20 years, post-Soviet Russia has witnessed the failure of at least two ruling party projects and the emergence of a successful dominant party, United Russia. I show how, in the 1990s, Russia’s powerful elites—in particular, regional governors and other local powerbrokers—eschewed real commitments to the various pro-presidential parties of the time, preferring instead to focus on the cultivation of their own political machines. In turn, seeking to avoid the costs of supporting a party that could not be sustained, President Boris Yeltsin undermined his own pro-presidential parties. By contrast, in the early 2000s a surge in oil revenues, sustained economic growth, and the attendant popularity of Yeltsin’s successor, Vladimir Putin, changed the balance of power between the Kremlin and regional elites. This readjustment in the balance of resources gave elites more reason to cooperate with the center than they had had in the 1990s. At the same time, existing elites were still strong enough that the Kremlin would need to work with them if it wanted to win elections, pass legislation, maintain social quiescence, and govern cost-effectively. Because the Kremlin needed to coopt these elites and elites were no longer so strong that they would necessarily be unfaithful partners, the Kremlin felt comfortable investing in a dominant party that could be used to coopt them. The result was Russia’s current ruling party, United Russia. Through an analysis of United Russia’s rise, this book sheds new light on how the current regime in Russia was built. It addresses questions such as why elites affiliate with the regime, what keeps elites loyal and how the regime wins elections. I argue that United Russia is an important, and often overlooked, pillar of regime stability. By demonstrating the party’s institutional role in perpetuating the regime, this study demonstrates some of the limits of personalism in contemporary Russia. The Origins of Dominant Parties is the result of more than 18 months of fieldwork in 10 Russian regions and Moscow. It draws on over 100 elite interviews and a series of original datasets compiled by the author. It contributes to research agendas on democratization, authoritarian regimes, and political institutions, as well as current debates in the study of Russian politics. As such, it should be of interest to both general comparativists and to scholars of post-Soviet politics. In addition, given its focus on recent political developments in Russia and its novel arguments about the organization of political power under Putin, this book should also be appealing to Russia watchers outside academia.
By 1999, Russia's economy was growing at almost 7% per year, and by 2008 reached 11th place in the world GDP rankings. Russia is now the world's second largest producer and exporter of oil, the largest producer and exporter of natural gas, and as a result has the third largest stock of foreign exchange reserves in the world, behind only China and Japan. But while this impressive economic growth has raised the average standard of living and put a number of wealthy Russians on the Forbes billionaires list, it has failed to solve the country's deep economic and social problems inherited from the Soviet times. Russia continues to suffer from a distorted economic structure, with its low labor productivity, heavy reliance on natural resource extraction, low life expectancy, high income inequality, and weak institutions. While a voluminous amount of literature has studied various individual aspects of the Russian economy, in the West there has been no comprehensive and systematic analysis of the socialist legacies, the current state, and future prospects of the Russian economy gathered in one book. The Oxford Handbook of the Russian Economy fills this gap by offering a broad range of topics written by the best Western and Russian scholars of the Russian economy. While the book's focus is the current state of the Russian economy, the first part of the book also addresses the legacy of the Soviet command economy and offers an analysis of institutional aspects of Russia's economic development over the last decade. The second part covers the most important sectors of the economy. The third part examines the economic challenges created by the gigantic magnitude of regional, geographic, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity of Russia. The fourth part covers various social issues, including health, education, and demographic challenges. It will also examine broad policy challenges, including the tax system, rule of law, as well as corruption and the underground economy. Michael Alexeev and Shlomo Weber provide for the first time in one volume a complete, well-rounded, and essential look at the complex, emerging Russian economy.
By the end of the 2000s Russia had become an increasingly authoritarian state, which was characterised by the following features: outrageously unfair and fraudulent elections, the existence of weak and impotent political parties, a heavily censored (often self-censored) media, weak rubber-stamping legislatures at the national and sub-national levels, politically subordinated courts, the arbitrary use of the economic powers of the state, and widespread corruption. However, this picture would be incomplete without taking into account the sub-national dimension of these subversive institutions and practices across the regions of the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, sub-national political developments in Russia became highly diversified and the political map of Russia’s regions became multi-faceted. The period of 2000s demonstrated a drive on the part of the Kremlin to re-centralise politics and governance to the demise of newly-emerging democratic institutions at both the national and sub-national levels. Yet, federalism and regionalism remain key elements of the research agenda in Russian politics, and the overall political map of Russia’s regions is far from being monotonic. Rather, it is similar to a complex multi-piece puzzle, which can only be put together through skilful crafting. The 12 chapters in this collection are oriented towards the generation of more theoretically and empirically solid inferences and provide critical evaluations of the multiple deficiencies in Russia’s sub-national authoritarianism, including: principal-agent problems in the relations between the layers of the ‘power vertical’, unresolved issues of regime legitimacy that have resulted from manipulative electoral practices, and the inefficient performance of regional and local governments. The volume brings together a team of international experts on Russian regional politics which includes top scholars from Britain, Canada, Russia and the USA.
Сборник статей российских авторов, рассматривающих различные аспекты российской политики после присоединения Крыма, в целом утверждающих, что такое развитие событий перекрывает перспективы модернизации страны.
This report is the culmination of a multi-year Track II initiative jointly organized by the Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO) and the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), with support from Carnegie Corporation of New York. The project brought together leading American and Russian experts on the Asia-Pacific for a dialogue on key regional issues. The participants in the meetings are listed below. While some of the participants provided feedback on drafts of this report, the content is solely the responsibility of the authors.
Впервые с единой точки зрения осмысляются технологии брендинга в современном обществе. Брендинг понимается как формирование и продвижение комплексов социальных мифов различного уровня. Используются уникальные прорывные концепции и методики, разработанные на отечественном материале и успешно применяемые российскими и зарубежными компаниями. Особый акцент делается на социално-культурной сфере.
Рассчитана на руководителей, менеджеров и специалистов по PR и рекламе, студентов и преподавателей управленческих специальностей и специализаций, слушателей и организаторов соот ветствующих курсов переподготовки и повышения квалификации, а также всех тех, кого интересуют информационно-коммуникативные технологии в сровременном обществе и проблемы повышения их эффективности.
In 2012, the Valdai International Discussion Club presented its report “Toward the Great Ocean or the New Globalization of Russia” for the political and expert communities in Russia and abroad. The present report, “Toward the Great Ocean-2”, is a follow-up on the previous one; it has taken into account the experience gained in implementing some of the recommendations contained in the first report and results of its broad discussion.
The authors of the present report hold that the shift of the center of gravity and the pivot of Russia’s foreign and foreign-economic policies toward the Asia-Pacific region is a natural and top-priority response to the challenge faced by the country in the global and diverse world of the 21st century. We have been witnessing an unprecedentedly fast shift of the center of the world economy and politics to Asia. Asia’s economic growth has become a “locomotive” driving many economies in the world, which have reoriented themselves to the supply of raw materials and goods to China, India and Southeast Asian countries. None of the leading states in the contemporary world can claim a truly global status without a strong presence in the Pacific. Russia, too, can and must use opportunities opened by the “Asian century.”
Работа посвящена процессу институционального и экономического устройства формирующегося макрорегиона Большой Евразии, получившей новый качественный стимул для своего развития в контексте Российско-Китайской Декларации от 8 мая 2015 г. о сопряжении проектов Евразийского экономического союза и Экономического пояса Шелкового пути.
This volume discusses post-socialist urban transport functioning and development in Russia, within the context of the country’s recent transition towards a market economy. Over the past twenty-five years, urban transport in Russia has undergone serious transformations, prompted by the transitioning economy. Yet, the lack of readily available statistical data has led to a gap in the inclusion of Russia in the body of international transport economics research. By including ten chapters of original, cutting-edge research by Russian transport scholars, this book will close that gap. Discussing topics such as the relationship between urban spatial structure and travel behavior in post-soviet cities, road safety, trends and reforms in urban public transport development, transport planning and modelling, and the role of institutions in post-soviet transportation management, this book provides a comprehensive survey of the current state of transportation in Russia. The book concludes with a forecast for future travel development in Russia and makes recommendations for future policy. This book will be of interest to researchers in transportation economics and policy as well as policy makers and those working in the field of urban and transport planning.
This book is about a facinating trip to ancient and modern Troy and about the fact that the Trojans defeated the Greeks and not the other way around, as is commonly believed. Also, we state the well-known Greek religion, with its specific anthropomorphism, was artificially created for political reasons; and soft power, information warfare, and the falsification of history do not constitute innovations – they are the oldest essential characteristic of Western thinking. The book refutes the conventional wisdom that “history is written by the victors”. On the contrary, we have shown that the victors are those who have managed to write history