Liberalism in Russia is one of the most complex, multifaced and, indeed, controversial phenomena in the history of political thought. Values and practices traditionally associated with Western liberalism—such as individual freedom, property rights, or the rule of law—have often emerged ambiguously in the Russian historical experience through different dimensions and combinations. Economic and political liberalism have often appeared disjointed, and liberal projects have been shaped by local circumstances, evolved in response to secular challenges and developed within often rapidly-changing institutional and international settings.
This third volume of the Reset DOC “Russia Workshop” collects a selection of the Dimensions and Challenges of Russian Liberalism conference proceedings, providing a broad set of insights into the Russian liberal experience through a dialogue between past and present, and intellectual and empirical contextualization, involving historians, jurists, political scientists and theorists.
The first part focuses on the Imperial period, analyzing the political philosophy and peculiarities of pre-revolutionary Russian liberalism, its relations with the rule of law (Pravovoe Gosudarstvo), and its institutionalization within the Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets). The second part focuses on Soviet times, when liberal undercurrents emerged under the surface of the official Marxist-Leninist ideology. After Stalin’s death, the “thaw intelligentsia” of Soviet dissidents and human rights defenders represented a new liberal dimension in late Soviet history, while the reforms of Gorbachev’s “New Thinking” became a substitute for liberalism in the final decade of the USSR. The third part focuses on the “time of troubles” under the Yeltsin presidency, and assesses the impact of liberal values and ethics, the bureaucratic difficulties in adapting to change, and the paradoxes of liberal reforms during the transition to post-Soviet Russia. Despite Russian liberals having begun to draw lessons from previous failures, their project was severely challenged by the rise of Vladimir Putin. Hence, the fourth part focuses on the 2000s, when the liberal alternative in Russian politics confronted the ascendance of Putin, surviving in parts of Russian culture and in the mindset of technocrats and “system liberals”. Today, however, the Russian liberal project faces the limits of reform cycles of public administration, suffers from a lack of federalist attitude in politics and is externally challenged from an illiberal world order. All this asks us to consider: what is the likelihood of a “reboot” of Russian liberalism?
Книга дает масштабную панораму экономических изменений, начиная со второй половины 18 века. Монография посвящена анализу долго- средне- и краткосрочных глобальных циклов процветания, рецессии и депрессии. Используя концепцию кондратьевских экономических циклов, авторы рассматривают их вкупе с политическими циклами, что позволяет прояснить динамику отношений между глобальным центром и мировой периферией, а также нынешние мировые экономические потрясения и их дальнейшие перспективы.
Основное внимание в исследовании уделяется последовательным волнам промышленного, а затем технологического и кибернетического прогресса, которые привели к наступлению нынешней эры глобализации, а также к изменению роли западных держав и бывших второстепенных игроков, что впоследствии приведет к формированию мирового порядка без гегемона.
Кроме того, авторы анализируют то, что они называют Великой конвергенцией, т.е. наблюдающееся с конца 1980-х годов уменьшение разрыва в уровне благосостояния между странами первого и третьего мира, пришедшее на смену Великой дивергенции 1800-х – начала 1970-х годов.
The authors call on G20 leaders to emphasise the urgent need to address education and skills development for refugee children and youth in host countries. G20 leaders should also promote the updating and responsiveness of national education systems in terms of quantity and quality to address current migration challenges in both host countries and countries of origin. To facilitate the inclusion of refugee children and youth in formal and non-formal education systems of host countries, G20 leaders should provide additional financing, and redirect existing funds, to support education infrastructure and favourable framework conditions. We also suggest measures to intensify cooperation with local ministries of education, and to increase international cooperation in accreditation of education for refugees. We urge the G20 to strongly support international efforts to provide access to educational opportunities for refugees at all levels, including higher education.
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 11 курса факультета мировой экономики и мировой политики ГУ-ВШЭ, изучающих испанский язык и специализирующихся по мировой экономике и регионоведению. В пособие вошли тексты из оригинальных испанских и латиноамериканских источников по географии, истории, культуре и экономике страны и региона изучаемого языка. Материалы, подобранные с учетом знаний грамматических конструкций первого этапа обучения, позволяют расширить лексический запас студентов по изучаемой.
В настоящей коллективной монографии российских и испанских авторов анализируются ключевые проблемы текущей экономической политики в обеих странах. Каждый из авторов привносит свое видение национальных ситуаций в глобальном контексте.
This issue of the almanac aims at filling the gap in the mega-evolutionary research. The Editors believe that the present Almanac, which brings together scientists working in different areas of the vast evolutionary field, will hopefully make a contribution to this process.The contributions to this volume are subdivided into three sections:‘Universal Evolution’, ‘Biological and Social Forms of Evolution: Connections and Comparisons’, and ‘Aspects of Social Evolution’. Subjects and issues of the contributions to all three sections have a great deal in common and significantly supplement each other.
This issue initiates a series of almanacs with Evolution as its general title; these almanacs are aimed at the consolidation of those researchers who study all the possible types of evolutionary processes. The interdisciplinary studies have demonstrated their effectiveness, whereas the study of evolution is one of the most fruitful areas of interdisciplinary knowledge where representatives of natural, mathematical, and social sciences, as well as the humanities can find a common field for their research. The almanac is designed to present to its readers the widest possible spectrum of subjects and problems: from the approaches of the universal evolutionism to the analysis of particular evolutionary regularities in the development of biological, abiotic, and social systems, culture, cognition, language, etc.
The first section of the almanac presents a general sketch of the universal evolution, its main phases, vectors, and trends. The second section is dedicated to the problems of comparisons of different types of macroevolution, as well as to the possibilities to use achievements of certain fields of evolutionary research in its other fields. The third section deals with major issues of social evolution. The topics of all the sections and articles intertwine rather tightly, that actually transforms the present issue of the almanac into a collective monograph dedicated to the search for contours and instruments of evolutionary megaparadigm. The almanac's articles present a wide panorama of the application of various approaches and concepts in the framework of this emergent general paradigm that will allow to detect in a much more effective way both fundamental similarities and essential differences between different types of evolutionary dynamics.
This almanac will be useful both for those who study interdisciplinary macroproblems and for specialists working in focused directions, as well as for those who are interested up to a certain degree in the evolutionary issues of astrophysics, geology, biology, history, anthropology, linguistics, and so on.
The application of the evolutionary approach to the history of nature and society has remained one of the most effective ways to conceptualize and integrate our growing knowledge of the Universe, life, society and human thought. The present volume demonstrates this in a rather convincing way. This is the third issue of the Almanac series titled ‘Evolution’. The first volume came out with the sub-heading ‘Cosmic, Biological, and Social’, the second was entitled ‘Evolution: A Big History Perspective’. The present volume is subtitled Development within Big History, Evolutionary and World-System Paradigms. In addition to the straightforward evolutionary approach, it also reflects such adjacent approaches as Big History, the world-system analysis, as well as globalization paradigm and long wave theory. The volume includes a number of the exciting works in these fields.
The Almanac consists of five sections. The first section (Globalization as an Evolutionary Process: Yesterday and Today) contains articles demonstrating that the Evolutionary studies is capable of creating a common platform for the world-system approach, globalization studies, and the economic long-wave theory. The articles of the second section (Society, Energy, and Future) discuss the role of energy in the universal evolution, human history and the future of humankind. The third section (Aspects of Social Development) touches upon four aspects of social evolution – technological, environmental, cultural, and political. The fourth section (The Driving Forces and Patterns of Evolution) deals with various phases of megaevolution. There is also a final section which is devoted to discussions of contemporary evolutionism.
This Almanac will be useful both for those who study interdisciplinary macroproblems and for specialists working in focused directions, as well as for those who are interested in evolutionary issues of Cosmology, Biology, History, Anthropology, Economics and other areas of study. More than that, this edition will challenge and excite your vision of your own life and the new discoveries going on around us!
This book aims to explain the reasons behind Russia’s international conduct in the post-Soviet era, examining threat perceptions and national security doctrines. Serguning analyzes Russian foreign policy discourse with a particular focus on the major foreign policy schools of Atlanticism, Eurasianism, derzhavniki, realpolitik, geopolitics, neo-Marxism, radical nationalism, and post-positivism. The author critically assesses the evolution of Russian foreign policy decision-making over the last 25 years and analyzes the roles of various governmental agencies, interest groups and subnational actors. Concluding that a foreign policy consensus is gradually emerging in contemporary Russia, Sergunin demonstrates that Russian foreign policy discourse aims not only at the formulation of an international strategy but also the search for a new national identity. Sergunin argues that Russia’s current domestic situation, defined by numerous socio-economic, inter-ethnic, demographic, environmental, and other problems, dictates the need to abandon superpower ambitions and to set modest foreign policy goals.
How do Russian leaders balance the need to decentralize governance in a socially and politically complex country with the need to guarantee political control of the state?
Since the early 2000’s Russian federal authorities have arranged a system of political control on regional elites and their leaders providing a ‘police control’ of special bodies subordinated by the federal centre on policy implementation in the regions. Different mechanisms of fiscal federalism and investment policy were used to ensure regional elites’ loyalty and a politically centralized but administratively decentralized system was created.
Asking clear, direct and theoretically informed questions about the relationship between federalism, decentralisation and authoritarianism, this book explores the political survival of authoritarian leaders, the determinants of policy formulation and theories of federalism and decentralization, to reach a new understanding of territorial governance in contemporary Russia. An important work for students and researchers in Russian studies and regional and federal studies.
Based on the synthesis of a large empirical and theoretical literature on centre-region relations in China and Russia, Federalism in China and Russia is one of the first attempts to integrate this literature from different disciplines into a coherent common framework. Libman and Rochlitz argue that the divergence in growth performance between Russia and China can be at least partially explained by a number of features of the Chinese system of centre-regional relations.The authors offer a comparative analysis of the development of centre-region relations in Russia and in China and explore several dimensions of these relations: fiscal ties and incentives; bureaucratic practices; flows of information; and local government practices, while addressing the determinants of divergence between both countries. They also examine how the Chinese system has recently started to change, by adopting several features of the Russian model, which might be one of the reasons for Chinas declining growth performance in recent years.Federalism in China and Russia should be read by scholars in public economics, political economy and comparative politics, as well as by students and policy analysts. For scholars, the book serves as a point of reference in studying the comparative evolution of the two countries. It will enrich the discussion on fiscal federalism, centre-region relations and sub-national political regimes, and could potentially become an important part of syllabi in political economy, public economics and comparative politics courses. For policy analysts, the book offers a comprehensive survey of the evolution of centre-periphery relations of the two countries and the differences between them, which is important to better understand the overall development of Russia and China.
Big History is a new field that has been gaining ground rapidly around the world. It deals with the universe's grand narrative of 13.8 billion years and attempts to provide a connection between our past, present and future. Appearing in three volumes, this is the first international anthology of Big History. The first volume, Our Place in the Universe: An Introduction to Big History, provides an overview and notes trends in Big History today. The second volume, Education and Understanding: Big History around the World, considers humanity's search for meaning and expression.
Shalva Nutsubidze (1888–1969) was a philosopher in the classic sense of the word: he dedicated his life to pursuing his love for Wisdom. Already in his younger years, he received a philosophical intuition that centered on the idea of aletheia, that is, the insight that Truth is the highest reality. Nutsubidze began to explain and articulate this intuition to himself and to others, with whom he engaged in dialogue, in different ways and in different contexts: as an original philosopher by using his own formulations, as a historian of philosophy by availing himself of the thoughts and formulations of congenial thinkers of the past such as Ioane Petritsi and Dionysius the Areopagite, as a historian of literature by letting the poetic language of Shota Rustaveli and other mediaeval Georgian authors whom he had studied speak for himself. Nutsubidze’s choice of research topics was, quite naturally, influenced by the circumstances of life of his own epoch, circumstances that were full of risks for the life and well-being for anyone who was unable to keep under lock and hidden away his or her ability to think independently. Such pressures may account for the fact that studies of poetry and culture ended up occupying a much greater place in his scientific production than one would have expected it in the 1910s, when he had begun to make a name for himself as a scholar. Some will regret that he never returned to writing on pure” philosophy after preparing his major monographs in the 1920s. However, this fact of his biography which was unfortunate from the perspective of the study of philosophy, turned into a fortunate felix culpa for the progress in studies of Georgian literature and, especially, studies of Rustaveli. Nutsubidze was the first to uncover, what by now has become a common place in scholarship: that Rustaveli was not only a poetic genius and a wise man, but also a philosopher in the vein of Dionysius the Areopagite and Ioane Petritsi. The very genre of Rustaveli’s poem could be called “philosophical poetry,” analogous to the manner in which one speaks of “philosophical dialogue.” Nutsubidze’s reading of The Knight in the Panther’s Skin has resurrected Rustaveli for the modern reader as a true philosopher. The present volume is dedicated to Shalva Nutsubidze and his memory by presenting studies that concentrate on the personalities and epochs, which were of particular interest to him: Dionysius the Areopagite andthe Iberian, the Christian Orient between the Council of Chalcedon and the Arab conquest, Ioane Petritsi and Shota Rustaveli in the context of the wider mediaeval Georgian culture, but especially with a focus on the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Since language is a constitutive pillar of cultural expression, we decided to conclude the volume with a new tool for learning the Old Georgian language, which still remains the least accessible language of the ancient and medieval Eastern Mediterranean Christian tradition. As a result, we hope that this volume will serve its audiences well when it is read as an introduction to Georgian Christian culture through the lens of several of its major themes.
Der Zusammenhang zwischen den Begriffen Recht und Gerechtigkeit ist ein zentraler Bestandteil politischer Debatten in Zeiten radikaler sozialer Veränderungen. Das Recht wird in der modernen Wissenschaft als spezifische Form sozialer Organisation definiert und tritt als Wert, Norm und Fakt in Erscheinung. Eine komplexe Betrachtung des Rechts als mehrdimensionales Phänomen ist nur unter Berücksichtigung aller dieser drei konkurrierenden Parameter möglich.Im folgenden Beitrag werden aus der Position der Kognitionstheorie die grundlegenden Parameter von Recht und Gerechtigkeit bei der Lösung von Schlüsselproblemen des gesellschaftlichen Umbaus in der Übergangsperiode vorgestellt.
This report examines the changes happening in Russia ever since the issue of global warming was introduced on the global agenda. Only today, after the planet has experienced a variety of catastrophic natural disasters, have world leaders and decision makers grown more aware of the urgency of the problem. In Russia, where climate changes have been more significant than globally on average, the government has increased its objectives in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and put forward a number of initiatives and green policy measures to achieve more sustainability in the long term. Russia’s target for greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 is set at 70-75 percent of the base level of 1990, according to the new action plan adopted by the Kremlin. Other states also recognize the problem but their positions differ in the way the issue should be solved. India, China, the U.S. and Brazil, all of which are important players analyzed in the report, find it hard to reach common ground in reaching a globally binding agreement. Whether this will be done ultimately depends on the outcome of the Paris climate change conference. The report also considers the state of the Russian climate change movement from the experience of NGO activities in Russia, provides an overview of the development of the Russian green energy sector with specific success stories and analyzes the prospects of renewable energy development in different regions of the country.