This issue initiates a series of almanacs with Evolution as its general title; these almanacs are aimed at the consolidation of those researchers who study all the possible types of evolutionary processes. The interdisciplinary studies have demonstrated their effectiveness, whereas the study of evolution is one of the most fruitful areas of interdisciplinary knowledge where representatives of natural, mathematical, and social sciences, as well as the humanities can find a common field for their research. The almanac is designed to present to its readers the widest possible spectrum of subjects and problems: from the approaches of the universal evolutionism to the analysis of particular evolutionary regularities in the development of biological, abiotic, and social systems, culture, cognition, language, etc.
The first section of the almanac presents a general sketch of the universal evolution, its main phases, vectors, and trends. The second section is dedicated to the problems of comparisons of different types of macroevolution, as well as to the possibilities to use achievements of certain fields of evolutionary research in its other fields. The third section deals with major issues of social evolution. The topics of all the sections and articles intertwine rather tightly, that actually transforms the present issue of the almanac into a collective monograph dedicated to the search for contours and instruments of evolutionary megaparadigm. The almanac's articles present a wide panorama of the application of various approaches and concepts in the framework of this emergent general paradigm that will allow to detect in a much more effective way both fundamental similarities and essential differences between different types of evolutionary dynamics.
This almanac will be useful both for those who study interdisciplinary macroproblems and for specialists working in focused directions, as well as for those who are interested up to a certain degree in the evolutionary issues of astrophysics, geology, biology, history, anthropology, linguistics, and so on.
The application of the evolutionary approach to the history of nature and society has remained one of the most effective ways to conceptualize and integrate our growing knowledge of the Universe, life, society and human thought. The present volume demonstrates this in a rather convincing way. This is the third issue of the Almanac series titled ‘Evolution’. The first volume came out with the sub-heading ‘Cosmic, Biological, and Social’, the second was entitled ‘Evolution: A Big History Perspective’. The present volume is subtitled Development within Big History, Evolutionary and World-System Paradigms. In addition to the straightforward evolutionary approach, it also reflects such adjacent approaches as Big History, the world-system analysis, as well as globalization paradigm and long wave theory. The volume includes a number of the exciting works in these fields.
The Almanac consists of five sections. The first section (Globalization as an Evolutionary Process: Yesterday and Today) contains articles demonstrating that the Evolutionary studies is capable of creating a common platform for the world-system approach, globalization studies, and the economic long-wave theory. The articles of the second section (Society, Energy, and Future) discuss the role of energy in the universal evolution, human history and the future of humankind. The third section (Aspects of Social Development) touches upon four aspects of social evolution – technological, environmental, cultural, and political. The fourth section (The Driving Forces and Patterns of Evolution) deals with various phases of megaevolution. There is also a final section which is devoted to discussions of contemporary evolutionism.
This Almanac will be useful both for those who study interdisciplinary macroproblems and for specialists working in focused directions, as well as for those who are interested in evolutionary issues of Cosmology, Biology, History, Anthropology, Economics and other areas of study. More than that, this edition will challenge and excite your vision of your own life and the new discoveries going on around us!
At the dawn of the twenty-first century, freelance work through online platforms emerged as a new phenomenon, gradually becoming a distinctive feature of the digital economy. This paper traces the development of freelance platform work in the Russian Federation and the wider post-Soviet space. The study utilizes unique data from four online surveys conducted by the authors in 2009, 2011, 2014 and 2019 via the leading general-purpose platform for creative and knowledge-based work, FL.ru operating in the Russian language. The common methodology used to collect and analyse the data from each survey provides an opportunity to shed light on the dynamics of key indicators over the ten-year period. The study investigates socio-demographic characteristics of freelancers and their careers, motivations, working conditions and well-being, as well as the problems that freelancers encounter in their relationships with clients. Overall, the results point to the increased importance of platforms, the diffusion of the new model of work among the wider population, and the persistent informality that may hinder the future development of the online labour market. The lack of basic labour rights, collective representation and social protection is also a pressing concern.
Cross-cultural psychology has come of age as a scientific discipline, but how has it developed? The field has moved from exploratory studies, in which researchers were mainly interested in finding differences in psychological functioning without any clear expectation, to detailed hypothesis tests of theories of cross-cultural differences. This book takes stock of the large number of empirical studies conducted over the last decades to evaluate the current state of the field. Specialists from various domains provide an overview of their area, linking it to the fundamental questions of cross-cultural psychology such as how individuals and their cultures are linked, how the link evolves during development, and what the methodological challenges of the field are. This book will appeal to academic researchers and postgraduates interested in cross-cultural research.
Der Zusammenhang zwischen den Begriffen Recht und Gerechtigkeit ist ein zentraler Bestandteil politischer Debatten in Zeiten radikaler sozialer Veränderungen. Das Recht wird in der modernen Wissenschaft als spezifische Form sozialer Organisation definiert und tritt als Wert, Norm und Fakt in Erscheinung. Eine komplexe Betrachtung des Rechts als mehrdimensionales Phänomen ist nur unter Berücksichtigung aller dieser drei konkurrierenden Parameter möglich.Im folgenden Beitrag werden aus der Position der Kognitionstheorie die grundlegenden Parameter von Recht und Gerechtigkeit bei der Lösung von Schlüsselproblemen des gesellschaftlichen Umbaus in der Übergangsperiode vorgestellt.
We see globalization as the growth of the sizes of social systems and the increase in the complexity of intersocietal links. Thus, in certain respects, globalization may be regarded as a process connecting the past, the present, and the future—as a sort of bridge between the past and the future. The title and the composition of the present volume refl ect this idea. Globalization: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow is distinguished by its focus on the systemic aspects of globalization processes. Political, economic, geographic, ecological, social, cultural, ethnic, religious and historical processes are analyzed and their single and joint impacts on globalization are discussed. The purpose is to complement more objective or ‘technical’ globalization narratives with more direct accounts of social and emotional issues. There are a number of publications
The governance arrangements put in place for Siberia and Mongolia after the collapse of the Qing and Russian Empires were highly unusual, experimental and extremely interesting. The Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic established within the Soviet Union in 1923 and the independent Mongolian People’s Republic established a year later were supposed to represent a new model of transnational, post-national governance, incorporating religious and ethno-national independence, under the leadership of the coming global political party, the Communist International. The model, designed to be suitable for a socialist, decolonised Asia, and for a highly diverse population in a strategic border region, was intended to be globally applicable. This book, based on extensive original research, charts the development of these unusual governance arrangements, discusses how the ideologies of nationalism, socialism and Buddhism were borrowed from, and highlights the relevance of the subject for the present day world, where multiculturality, interconnectedness and interdependency become ever more complicated.
Монография посвящена устной истории о событиях Второй мировой войны. Рассказы очевидцев, переживших драматические события, - от финской оккупации в Карелии до повседневности украинских, российских острабайтеров, работавших в немецких трудовых лагерях, детстве в концлагерях, - представляют другую сторону войны, озвученную не только теми, кто воевал на фронтах, но и жил и работал в то непростое время.
Учебник посвящен теоретическим и практическим аспектам взаимодействия бизнеса и государства. Рассмотрены теоретические основы взаимодействия бизнеса и государства. Проанализированы особенности взаимодействия государства и бизнеса в сфере инвестиций, государственных закупок, антимонопольного регулирования, государственно-частного партнерства, определяется социальная ответственность участников данного взаимодействия. Приводятся теоретические основы адаптации государства и бизнеса в условиях циклического развития экономики. Издание предназначено для бакалавров, обучающихся по направлению «Экономика», для магистрантов, обучающихся по разным направлениям, для преподавателей.
The human history has evidenced various systems of hierarchy and power in different spheres of social life. The relations of hierarchy and power are relevant for every sphere as they penetrate the whole life of a society and represent a sort of framework for an individual's activity. The cultural sphere (in the wide sense of the word) is not an exception, although, of course, it has great peculiarities in the manifestation of power-hierarchical relations. The relations here are usually informal and more often connected with traditions than with norms, there are much less power structures that have the legal right for coercion. The book consists of two main parts. The papers included in the first section discuss the dynamics and potentials of newly emerging socio-cultural network structures and the ways in which they reconceptualize socio-cultural organization through innovative forms of spatial practice. The second section is dedicated to the study of new models of communication whose influence overcomes states' borders and which have a great potential and capabilities for destroying the basis and cultural values of the society.