Information systems have been developed in parallel with computer science, although information systems have roots in different disciplines including mathematics, engineering, and cybernetics. Research in information systems is by nature very interdisciplinary. As it is evidenced by the chapters in this book, dynamics of information systems has several diverse applications. The book presents the state-of-the-art work on theory and practice relevant to the dynamics of information systems. First, the book covers algorithmic approaches to numerical computations with infinite and infinitesimal numbers. Also the book presents important problems arising in service-oriented systems, such as dynamic composition, analysis of modern service-oriented information systems, and estimation of customer service times on a rail network from GPS data. After that, the book addresses the complexity of the problems arising in stochastic and distributed systems. In addition, the book discusses modulating communication for improving multi-agent learning convergence. Network issues, in particular minimum risk maximum clique problems, vulnerability of sensor networks, influence diffusion, community detection, and link prediction in social network analysis, as well as a comparative analysis of algorithms for transmission network expansion planning are described in subsequent chapters. We thank all the authors and anonymous referees for their advice and expertise in providing valuable contributions, which improved the quality of this book. Furthermore, we want to thank Springer for helping us to produce this book.
Эта публикация представляет собой сборник отдельных статей "Третьей Международной конференции по динамике информационных систем», которая состоялась в университете Флориды, 16-18 февраля 2011 года. Цель данной конференции заключалась в том, чтобы собрать вместе ученых и инженеров из промышленности, правительства и научных кругов, чтобы они смогли обменяться новыми открытиями и результатами в вопросах, имеющих отношение к теории и практике динамики информационных систем. Динамика информационных систем: математическое открытие представляет собой современное исследование и предназначается студентам – аспирантам и исследователям, которые интересуются самыми последними открытиями в информационной теории и динамичных системах. Ученые других дисциплин могут также получить пользу от применения новых разработок в своих областях исследований.
Dynamics of Political Violence examines how violence emerges and develops from episodes of contentious politics. By considering a wide range of empirical cases, such as anarchist movements, ethno-nationalist and left-wing militancy in Europe, contemporary Islamist violence, and insurgencies in South Africa and Latin America, this pathbreaking volume of research identifies the forces that shape radicalization and violent escalation. It also contributes to the process-and-mechanism-based models of contentious politics that have been developing over the past decade in both sociology and political science. Chapters of original research emphasize how the processes of radicalization and violence are open-ended, interactive, and context dependent. They offer detailed empirical accounts as well as comprehensive and systematic analyses of the dynamics leading to violent episodes. Specifically, the chapters converge around four dynamic processes that are shown to be especially germane to radicalization and violence: dynamics of movement-state interaction; dynamics of intra-movement competition; dynamics of meaning formation and transformation; and dynamics of diffusion.
The professionalisation of the field of international higher education has, among other things, amplified the need for specific skills at the international office. Even the definition and location of the international office now vary from one university to the next. Among all these changes, who is the international officer of today? As the diversity of opinions, experiences and case studies in this issue illustrate, the answer to this question is anything but straight forward.
In all three countries, inflation will remain at a low level both this year and in 2015. The disinflation environment, however, may exacerbate problems in the fiscal sphere, especially on the back of sluggish economic performance. This will be important for Croatia and Serbia, where budget expenditures (and hence deficits) will increase this year. Slovenia, on the other hand, is demonstrating stronger fiscal discipline.
>Poland. The Polish economy is growing like a DM economy, while Bulgaria is still searching for a new growth model. Unlike many other countries, Poland was able to avoid recession in 2008-09, and it continues to demonstrate sustainable growth, albeit the threat of deflation exists. Polish economic growth is expected to accelerate this year, supported by a strong performance in construction. Consistent and strong macroeconomic policy kept the country's debt/GDP ratios at bay during the crisis, and has contributed to steady deleveraging in recent years. > Bulgaria. Bulgaria's economic growth remains slow, and after a sharp correction in 2009 the economy saw little restructuring in recent years. There has been deflation since mid-2013, but economic growth is set to accelerate this year to around 1.5%, which could offset the negative impact of deflation on the budget. The country's industrial output improved in 2013-14, but domestic demand has weakened in recent months. > Latvia. Latvia's economic growth still remains strong but may decelerate this year as a side effect of instability in the region and mounting complications in relations between Russia and the EU. Heavily indebted Latvia tightened its macroeconomic policy in the aftermath of the 2008 crisis and remains committed to maintaining macro stability, having joined the Eurozone. Deflation cannot be ruled out as a result.
Increasing volatility on financial markets, uncertainty about Greece's debt restructuring and economic slowdown, and currency depreciation in the CIS region have put growth prospects in Poland and Latvia at risk. However, Poland has more flexibility to respond to these challenges, as it has an independent monetary policy and weaker links with the CIS.