This is the first textbook on attribute exploration, its theory, its algorithms for applications, and some of its many possible generalizations. Attribute exploration is useful for acquiring structured knowledge through an interactive process, by asking queries to an expert. Generalizations that handle incomplete, faulty, or imprecise data are discussed, but the focus lies on knowledge extraction from a reliable information source.
The method is based on Formal Concept Analysis, a mathematical theory of concepts and concept hierarchies, and uses its expressive diagrams. The presentation is self-contained. It provides an introduction to Formal Concept Analysis with emphasis on its ability to derive algebraic structures from qualitative data, which can be represented in meaningful and precise graphics.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS 2013, held in Mumbai, India, in January 2013. The 22 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions for inclusion in the book. The volume also contains 3 invited talks. ICCS focuses on the useful representation and analysis of conceptual knowledge with research and business applications. It advances the theory and practice in connecting the user's conceptual approach to problem solving with the formal structures that computer applications need to bring their productivity to bear. Conceptual structures (CS) represent a family of approaches that builds on the successes of artificial intelligence, business intelligence, computational linguistics, conceptual modeling, information and Web technologies, user modeling, and knowledge management.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS 2009, which took place in Moscow, Russia, on July 26-31, 2009.
The 18 papers presented together with 5 invited contributions were carefully reviewed and selected from approximately 50 submissions. Originally centered around research on knowledge representation and reasoning with conceptual graphs, over the years ICCS has broadened its scope to include innovations from a wider range of theories and related practices, among them other forms of graph-based formalisms like RDF or existential graphs, formal concept analysis, semantic Web technologies, ontologies, concept mapping and more.
В книге собраны работы историков ряда европейских стран, в которых рассматривается проблематика взаимодействия христианских, «прото-национальных» и зрело-национальных дискурсов. Книга – один плодов международного проекта «Confessiones et nationes», осуществленного историками России, Франции и ряда других стран. М.В. Дмитриев – со-редактор и со-издатель этой книги
Данная книга является анализом конституционного права России, содержит основные сведения об источниках конституционного права в России, форме правления, форме государственного устройства. Книга будет полезна юристам, работающим в рамках различных национальных юрисдикций, поскольку она объясняет терминологию российского конституционного права и раскрывает практику его применения. Особое внимание уделено тому, как конституционное право обуславливает интерпретацию правовых норм.
В книге полно описывается политическая система России и ее исторические корни. Раскрывается значение различных источников права: договоров, законодательства, доктрины, административного регулирования. Показывается система органов государственной власти, их юридический статус, полномочия центральных органов власти, территориальное разграничение полномочий органов власти. Анализируется институт гражданства. Также описывается правовой статус иностранцев, международные отношения, бюджетная система, чрезвычайные законы, правовой статус вооруженных сил, конституционные отношения между церковью и государством.
Лаконичность и одновременная информативность, практическая направленность делают книгу полезной как для практикующих юристов, так и для ученых. Книга будет особенно полезна для юристов, чьи клиенты ведут бизнес в России, и для специалистов по сравнительному правоведению.
Данная книга является исследованием в области политической социологии и международных отношений, которое изучает эволюцию политики идентичности в России и Германии, восприятие ими друг друга и образа Европы и политическое значение изменений в их идентичности. В книге представлены теоретические подходы к изучению проблем идентичности, исторический и социологический анализ структур идентичности и взаимного восприятия друг друга в России и Германии, а также ряд политических рекомендаций.
This volume contains a collection of papers based on lectures and presentations delivered at the International Conference on Constructive Nonsmooth Analysis (CNSA) held in St. Petersburg (Russia) from June 18-23, 2012. This conference was organized to mark the 50th anniversary of the birth of nonsmooth analysis and nondifferentiable optimization and was dedicated to J.-J. Moreau and the late B.N. Pshenichnyi, A.M. Rubinov, and N.Z. Shor, whose contributions to NSA and NDO remain invaluable.
The first four chapters of the book are devoted to the theory of nonsmooth analysis. Chapters 5-8 contain new results in nonsmooth mechanics and calculus of variations. Chapters 9-13 are related to nondifferentiable optimization, and the volume concludes with four chapters containing interesting and important historical chapters, including tributes to three giants of nonsmooth analysis, convexity, and optimization: Alexandr Alexandrov, Leonid Kantorovich, and Alex Rubinov. The last chapter provides an overview and important snapshots of the 50-year history of convex analysis and optimization.
Control of Discrete-Time Descriptor Systems takes an anisotropy-based approach to the explanation of random input disturbance with an information-theoretic representation. It describes the random input signal more precisely, and the anisotropic norm minimization included in the book enables readers to tune their controllers better through the mathematical methods provided. The book contains numerous examples of practical applications of descriptor systems in various fields, from robotics to economics, and presents an information-theoretic approach to the mathematical description of coloured noise. Anisotropy-based analysis and design for descriptor systems is supplied along with proofs of basic statements, which help readers to understand the algorithms proposed, and to undertake their own numerical simulations. This book serves as a source of ideas for academic researchers and postgraduate students working in the control of discrete-time systems. The control design procedures outlined are numerically effective and easily implementable in MATLAB®
This is a textbook in data analysis. Its contents are heavily influenced by the idea that data analysis should help in enhancing and augmenting knowledge of the domain as represented by the concepts and statements of relation between them. According to this view, two main pathways for data analysis are summarization, for developing and augmenting concepts, and correlation, for enhancing and establishing relations. Visualization, in this context, is a way of presenting results in a cognitively comfortable way. The term summarization is understood quite broadly here to embrace not only simple summaries like totals and means, but also more complex summaries such as the principal components of a set of features or cluster structures in a set of entities.
The material presented in this perspective makes a unique mix of subjects from the fields of statistical data analysis, data mining, and computational intelligence, which follow different systems of presentation.
At the heart of this project is comprehensive Sociological research conducted in Russia by the Centre for Study of Civil Society and Non-Profit Sector, NRU HSE, with support from the Basic Research Program of the National Research University – Higher School of Economics. Using the methodology that parallels that of IAVE’s Global Corporate Volunteering Research Project, the research sample includes three groups of organizations that conduct employee volunteer programs.The results demonstrate that the workplace can be a conducive, safe environment within which workers can express their willingness, as private citizens, to help people in need and to address pressing human, social and environmental problems through volunteering and giving. Those who volunteer through their workplace are more actively involved generally in civil society – both as volunteers and in giving cash donations – than their colleagues who do not volunteer and than the general population.
Предлагаемые учебно-методические материалы предназначены для студентов 2 года обучения по ESP. Настоящая работа включает учебные тексты, систему упражнений, заданий и дополнительных текстов правовой направленности, которые должны обеспечить комплексное обучение студентов различным видам речевой деятельности, а именно, развитию навыков чтения, перевода, устной речи, умению работать с текстом с целью передачи его общего содержания.
Corruption has been a constant factor in Russia’s political economy. From one era to another, the multifarious forms of corruption continue to pervade Russian politics despite sincere and insincere efforts to fight it. The election of Vladimir Putin as president in 2000 brought a new effort at consolidating and organizing authority in the country. However, far from eliminating corruption, politics of the Putin era have merely changed the form of corruption, integrating corruption into the “power vertical” through which Putin governs.
In recent years, corruption has played an ever larger role in the regime’s stability. It serves as a force to co-opt and control the political elite and to replace formal institutions with something more flexible and more amenable to the needs of a consolidated authoritarian regime. Only deep changes, such as higher levels of political competition, have a chance of reducing corruption in the long run. The approaching fourth term of President Putin will continue to increase the role of informal institutions in Russian politics, in which corruption plays an increasingly large role in the Kremlin’s management of the political process.
The U.S. defence community is currently debating a range of capability requirements and top priority investments that will shape U.S. strategy and the use of force in the 21st century. Embedded in a broader conceptual umbrella of the Third Offset Strategy, the U.S. Department of Defence (DOD) seeks to develop technologically enabled novel operational and organisational constructs. This would sustain U.S. military superiority over its capable adversaries at the operational level of war, thereby strengthening conventional deterrence. At the same time, the Third Offset strategy aims to revamp institutional agility in U.S. defence management to succeed in a dynamically evolving operational environment. By speeding up the implementation of organisational and conceptual innovation, a strategic technological advantage is sustainable. Strategic effectiveness of the Third Offset, however, will not only depend on the institutional agility and adoption capacity – the financial intensity and organisational capital required to adopt military innovations, but will also depend on the responses, resources, and counter-innovations by peer competitors. Notwithstanding the diffusion and convergence of novel technologies – electronic miniaturisation, additive manufacturing, nano-technology, artificial intelligence, space-like capabilities, and unmanned systems that are likely to alter the character of conflict over time, the patterns of “challenge, strategic response, and adaptation” will continue to shape the direction and character of long-term strategic competitions. Accordingly, this report aims to ascertain the evolving contours of the Russian strategic thought and responses toward the Third Offset strategy. It argues that while the U.S. Third Offset is a recent development, its core technological initiatives have been a significant causeof concern for Russia for a long time. In this context, Russian responses to counter these initiatives consist of two major elements: The first one is ‘countering the Third Offset Strategy with the First Offset Strategy’, which means prioritising the development of a wide array of both strategic and tactical nuclear weapons systems. For Russia, maintaining a sophisticated arsenal of nuclear weapons can effectively offset conventional military innovations of the U.S., NATO, and China. The second element of the response strategy is more ambitious, and carries greater technological risks. Russia began to counter many U.S. technological initiatives via similar indigenous programs, although more narrowly focused and smaller in scale. In October 2012, Russia established the Advanced Research Foundation (ARF) – a counterpart to the U.S. DARPA. The ARF focuses on similar areas such as the Third Offset Strategy, including hypersonic vehicles, artificial intelligence, additive technologies, unmanned underwater vehicles, cognitive technologies, directed energy weapons, and others. Although in some programmes, Russian military research and development are at initial stages relative to the U.S., in other areas such as directed energy weapons, rail gun, hypersonic vehicle; unmanned underwater vehicle programmes are progressing into advanced stages. The key challenge for Russia, however, is a sustained resource allocation to translate these disruptive innovations into actual military capabilities.