Статья написана на английском языке.
Los documentos contables constituyen una parte importante del corpus epigráfico hitita que suscita gran interés entre los especialistas de los hititas. Varias razones justifican este interés. Primero, los textos contables hititas no son tan numerosos como los de los archivos de Siria y Mesopotamia. Por ejemplo, la documentación relativa a la distribución de raciones de alimentos es casi inexistente. En segundo lugar, la contabilidad hitita emplea una terminología específica, que no se conoce en otras tradiciones. Al mismo tiempo, el uso entre los hititas de términos técnicos mesopotámicos podía desviarse de los usos normativos de Mesopotamia. Por fin, los hititas redactaban sus cuentas no solo en arcilla sino también en soportes perecederos como la madera. Así, es probable que además de valerse del escrito, los hititas practicasen otras formas de contabilidad.
This study tests a model of the socio-economic adaptation of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium. It examines the roles of language skills and length of stay in Belgium, and of ethnic and religious identification in their acculturation preferences in their adaptation. The study showed that language skills were positively related to preferences for integration and assimilation, while length of stay was negatively related to separation. In turn, integration and assimilation predicted higher socio-economic adaptation, and separation predicted lower adaptation. Ethnic and religious identification also played a role. In sum, more orientation toward the host society (integration and assimilation) promoted better adaptation.
This article problematizes piracy a) as a hegemonic discourse and technology of control, aiming to securitize late capitalist accumulation; b) as a practice developed by the multitudes that is compatible to post – Fordist mode of production and to neoliberal norms; and, c) as resistance to dominant mode of late capitalist production, distribution and consumption of immaterial goods. The article addresses and criticizes capitalism’s ‘organic’ and strategic colonization of fundamental social commons, such as culture, intellectual goods, as well as human creativity and communication, by looking at the ideological, institutional and material processes that reproduce the capitalist ‘machine’. This paper concludes by considering the possibility of overcoming the capitalist approach to commons, through the politicization of IPR as well as through the connection of the problem they pose to broader social perspectives, confronting capitalism — in its post political disguises — politically.
In the paper (Kushnir et al., Int J Geomath 4(2):201–225, 2013) we offered the mathematically rigorous justification of the adaptive algorithm for statistical estimation of parameters of micro-earthquake source based on data recorded by a surface array of seismic receivers. The algorithm exploits the popular statistical Maximum Likelihood approach for determination of unknown parameters of probability distribution of a multichannel data generated by micro-earthquake source and registered by the surface array in the presence of strong noise. In this paper we consider unique properties of the mentioned adaptive maximum-likelihood estimator (AMLE) in conditions when the noise affecting the surface array receivers contains strong time-spatially correlated (coherent) component of man-made origin. These conditions are typical when AMLE algorithm is implemented for location of the micro-earthquakes caused by the medium hydraulic fracturing at hydrocarbon deposit sites. In the mentioned conditions AMLE algorithm demonstrates capability to suppress coherent noise component and hence to significantly improve the accuracy of determination of the coordinates of micro-earthquake sources. In the paper we theoretically investigate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of AMLE statistic and show that this SNR tends to infinity while seismic noise becomes purely coherent. We have undertaken also the computer simulation of the micro-earthquake location with the help of AMLE algorithm using deployment of the 150 seismic receivers which corresponds geometry of a real USA surface seismic array. For this array we computed the model multidimensional realizations of the micro-earthquake signal, the coherent man-made noise component and the natural noise component. The results of this computer simulation have shown that in conditions when the power of the coherent man-made component of the modeled noise significantly exceeds the power of the natural component of this noise the errors of micro-earthquake source position determination become negligible.
The Soviet system of knowledge production based on cooperation, knowledge sharing, but also intense competition was already an inspiration for innovation policymakers in the U.S. and in Europe back in the 1950 and 1960s. Nowadays, as the global economy is moving towards a new mode of production, the Soviet case may still play an important role to help to frame a better institutional approach to innovation. With the dramatic challenges already brought by the fourth industrial revolution and the tectonic economic and social shifts it is expected to cause around the world, the Soviet case with all its pros and cons is becoming more and more relevant for this debate as it provides necessary empirical data to consider other institutional approaches to innovation distinct from the established property-focused model. In this context, intellectual property and competition law scholars hopefully would better understand the Soviet innovation system through further academic studies.