In this paper, we investigate differences in and determinants of technical efficiency across three groups of OECD, Asian and Latin American countries. As technical efficiency determines the capacity with which countries absorb technology produced abroad, these differences are important to understand differences in growth and productivity across countries, especially for developing countries which depend to a large extend on foreign technology. Using a stochastic frontier framework and data for 22 manufacturing sectors for 1996-2005, we find notable differences in technical efficiency between the three country groups we examine. We then investigate the effect of human capital and domestic R&D, proxied by the stock of patents, on technical efficiency. We find that while human capital has always a strongly positive effect on efficiency, an increase in the stock of patents has positive effects on efficiency in high-tech sectors, but negative effects in low-tech sectors.
Superior bargaining power arises when one trading partner becomes dependent on the other. It can be abused to exploit the counterparty or to grab profi ts within a product value chain. It is necessary to apply anti-monopoly law to superior bargaining power because, firstly, abuse of a superior bargaining power distorts the product value chain and, finally, leads to higher prices or a decline in product quality. When superior bargaining power originates from an intellectual property right, its abuse will hinder both the application of the subject technology and competition in adjacent or downstream markets. Secondly, the economic relationships that abuse of superior bargaining power covers are often macroscopical. Compared to other laws and legislative proposals, anti-monopoly law is the most appropriate way to regulate superior bargaining power.
“Academic inbreeding”—involving the appointment of faculty members who graduated from the institution employing them—is considered a small and peripheral aspect of the academic profession but is quite widespread globally. This paper analyzes the nature of inbreeding and its impact on universities. Data from eight countries where inbreeding is widespread are analyzed in order to examine the perceived impact of the phenomenon on academics and universities. Our analysis reveals that while inbreeding has deleterious effects on universities, it is widely perceived as a “normal” part of academic life—and some positive aspects are evident.
Background. While the current literature provides valuable insight into how school climate perceptions and student motivation impact academic achievement, research examining the mediating effects of motivation in the linking of innovative educational system, school climate, and achievement is limited. The potential of the El’konin-Davydov system of developmental education as a basis for educational innovation is considered in this study. With respect to academic motivation, self-determination theory is applied as a useful theoretical framework that allows for the consideration of both the intensity and the quality of motivation.
Objective. The study examines a model that illustrates the role of autonomous and external types of academic motivation in linking the El’konin-Davydov system of developmental education and school climate to the academic achievement of elementary schoolchildren.
Design. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the current study. Participants were 345 third and fourth graders drawn from four regular schools located in Moscow, with some (N=192) educated in the traditional system and others (N=153) in an innovative one.
Results. The results of structural equation modeling showed that the hypothesized model fit the data well, supporting the hypothesis that student external motivation plays a mediating role in linking educational system (innovative vs traditional) with academic achievement. Additionally, results indicated that students’ autonomous motivation plays a mediating role in linking positive perceptions of school climate with academic achievement.
Conclusion. These results highlight that the developmental education approach compared to the so called traditional system of education provides better instructional quality, promoting decreased external motivation as well as a better attitude towards school and study, which in turn is associated with higher academic achievement.
Исследование основано на гипотезе о том, что выстраивание определенной иерархической модели academic skills позволяет систематизировать имеющиеся в западной науке подходы и описать эффективные методы применения модели на практике с учетом российских реалий
В этой статье доказано, что всякая ориентируемая поверхность допускает сохраняющий ориентацию диффеоморфизм Морса-Смейла с одной седловой орбитой. Показано, что эти диффеоморфизмы имеют ровно три узловых орбит. Кроме того, устанавливаются все возможные типы периодических данных для таких диффеоморфизмов.