Diffusion imaging techniques such as DTI and HARDI are difficult to implement in infants because of their sensitivity to subject motion. A short acquisition time is generally preferred, at the expense of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Before estimating the local diffusion model, most pre-processing techniques only register diffusion-weighted volumes, without correcting for intra-slice artifacts due to motion or technical problems. Here, we propose a fully automated strategy, which takes advantage of a high orientation number and is based on spherical-harmonics decomposition of the diffusion signal.Material and methods
The correction strategy is based on two successive steps: 1) automated detection and resampling of corrupted slices; 2) correction for eddy current distortions and realignment of misregistered volumes. It was tested on DTI data from adults and non-sedated healthy infants.Results
The methodology was validated through simulated motions applied to an uncorrupted dataset and through comparisons with an unmoved reference. Second, we showed that the correction applied to an infant group enabled to improve DTI maps and to increase the reliability of DTI quantification in the immature cortico-spinal tract.Conclusion
This automated strategy performed reliably on DTI datasets and can be applied to spherical single- and multiple-shell diffusion imaging.
We present a novel method for the extraction of neuronal components showing cross-frequency phase synchronization.
In general the method can be applied for the detection of phase interactions between components with frequencies f1 and f2, where f2 ≈ rf1 and r is some integer. We refer to the method as cross-frequency decomposition (CFD), which consists of the following steps: (a) extraction of f1-oscillations with the spatio-spectral decomposition algorithm (SSD); (b) frequency modification of the f1-oscillations obtained with SSD; and (c) finding f2-oscillations synchronous with f1-oscillations using least-squares estimation.
Our simulations showed that CFD was capable of recovering interacting components even when the signal-to-noise ratio was as low as 0.01. An application of CFD to the real EEG data demonstrated that cross-frequency phase synchronization between alpha and beta oscillations can originate from the same or remote neuronal populations.
CFD allows a compact representation of the sets of interacting components. The application of CFD to EEG data allows differentiating cross-frequency synchronization arising due to genuine neurophysiological interactions from interactions occurring due to quasi-sinusoidal waveform of neuronal oscillations.
CFD is a method capable of extracting cross-frequency coupled neuronal oscillations even in the presence of strong noise.
Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper presents an overview of studies on the correlations of teacher pay to regional economics and to regional factors affecting the size of teacher salaries. It describes the basic pay indicators for teachers in the regions: absolute salary, teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, and ratio of salary to the cost of a fixed set of goods and services and to the per capita gross regional product. Based on calculations that used open government databases, a classification of regions by teacher pay level was developed. Regions of the country turned out to belong to seven different clusters. Recommendations on teacher remuneration were developed for each of these clusters and common risks and challenges were identified.
Nannopus palustris Brady, 1880 is a free-living widely distributed harpacticoid copepod, which has been formerly assumed to be a single, cosmopolitan but highly variable species. We compared several geographically distant N. palustris populations in terms of their morphology and genetics. Populations from the White Sea (WS), the North Sea (NS), the Black Sea (BS) and two sympatric morphs from South Carolina, USA (SC notched and SC straight morphs), were considered. The NS, BS and to a lesser extent SC notched specimens were morphologically similar and partly coincided to the ‘canonical’ description of the species. By contrast, WS population showed remark able anatomical and morphometric peculiarities that correspond to some earlier descriptions. Genetic analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (28S rDNA) genes demonstrated the significant distinctness among WS, both SC and (NS+BS) populations, the latter two being genetically indistinguishable. Concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees and morphological data supports that N. palustris is in fact composed of several pseudo-sibling species, which are genetically and morphologically divergent. Neither correlation between genetic divergence and geographical distance nor significant intrapopulation diversity was found for these species. Taxonomic status, distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the species within the Nannopus genus need to be reconsidered. A further subdivision of species complexes might have important implications for the analysis of biodiversity of benthic copepods and consequently for the interpretation of their (species-specific) ecological function.
The flora of the southwestern Australian biodiversity hotspot is rich in endemic species, many of which remain to be discovered or properly described; estimates of species diversity and levels of endemism should take into account the possible occurrence of cryptic species. Here we explore taxonomic diversity in a Western Australian lineage belonging to the primarily Australian genus Trithuria, the sole genus of Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales). Recent molecular evidence supports the existence of cryptic species in self-pollinating members of section Trithuria. We investigate Western Australian plants currently classified as T. australis s.l., a self-pollinating member of the section Hydatella. Using evidence from microsatellite data (SSRs), an expanded molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four plastid markers, and fruit micromorphology, we suggest that material traditionally classified as T. australis s.l. belongs to at least four species. Two species occur in the northern part of the distribution range of the group (31° S to 33°27′ S), and two in the southern part (33°27′ S to 35° S). Each northern species has distinctive fruit micromorphology not recorded in other members of the genus. The two southern species are well characterized by molecular characters and seem to be allopatric, but lack obvious morphological differences from each other. We describe one of the northern species as T. fitzgeraldii sp. nov. However, clarifying the names of the other three species is currently problematic as T. australis and another available name are based on collections made 117 years ago, from localities distant from any subsequent records of Hydatellaceae. Based on genome size estimations, we also demonstrate two ploidy levels in the T. australis complex. Our study supports the view that species diversity in Hydatellaceae is strongly underestimated.