This essay presents taxonomy for analyzing objects in films and applies it to the work of Canadian filmmaker, Denys Arcand. This kind of analysis aims to identify and analyze how the most representative daily objects are used in films. The following three films were analyzed for the purposes of this paper: Le déclin de l´empire américain (The Decline of the American Empire, 1986), Les invasions barbares (The Barbarian Invasions, 2003) and L’âge des ténèbres (Days of Darkness, 2007). This research was developed at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada and supported by the Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada (DFAIT).
В "Философских, историч. и проч. записках разного содержания", составленных Дидро для Екатерины II, философ, исходя из образовательных реформ, инициированных самой императрицей, настаивает на необходимости составления особого гражданского морального катехизиса для ее подданных. Он упоминает об этомтакже в нескольких письмах, адресованных Екатерине II и И.И. Бецкому в 1774 г., во время его второго пребывания в Гаааге. Документы, недавно обнаруженные в РГАДА, позволяют уточнить некоторые обстоятельства, связанные с этим проектом, и в то же время ставят новые вопросы о роли Дидро в разработке этого катехизиса.
in this paper i shall present one speciic method of Husserl’s phenomenological analysis – the method of dismantling (abbau), which is of great importance for his late philosophy. i attempt to determine the place of this method within the boundaries of the husserlian project of “phenomenological archaeology”. Comparing it with the method of questioning back (rückfrage) into the transcendental genesis, i deine the dismantling reduction (abbau-reduktion) as an experimental “regressive analysis of sense”. examining this type of intentional analysis i point out these three stages: 1. the dismantling analysis of the intersubjective sense (the reduction to the “irst primordiality”); 2. the dismantling analysis of time-consciousness (the reduction to the now-perception); 3. the dismantling analysis of perception (the reduction to “last perceptions”). hese considerations help further clarify Husserl’s procedure of suspending the coherence of experience when questioning back into the structure of the pre-given world.
A paralogism seems to occur in Aristotle's demonstration of the psychological principle of non-contradiction; from a performative principle of assertion, viz. saying something amounts to believe it, a modern approach leads us to claim that Aristotle assumes a referential transparency of belief opaque contexts in order to correlate the psychological and logical versions of non-contradiction. We attempt to reconstruct the proof of the principle (I). By means of the modern formalization, we apply this explanation to a couple of paradoxes (II). We conclude from this the nature of non-contradictoriness (III), before proposing a syntactic "dissolution" of the problem of referential opacity in the context of propositional attitudes. Such a dissolution leads to a skeptic stance towards the formal treatments of intentionality.
The paper is dedicated premises of origin and patterns of development of the doctrine of “fair price” Aquinas. Showing contradictions exchange of agricultural products to urban goods and services, resulting in a developed feudalism. For agricultural products incoming to the city market, the situation was characterized as the free competition, while medieval guild tried to create a monopoly conditions for the production and sale of its products, which objectively leads to distortion of prices. Under these conditions, the development of the problem of "fair price" becomes extremely important. The paper shows how scholasticism using theological methodology, trying to solve this problem.
Greed condemned, was considered evil and sin of avarice considered the source of all evils. This tradition goes back to the interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew John Chrysostom. Alexander Halensis one of the first attempted rehabilitation of commercial activities and even tried to criticize the position of the Pseudo-Chrysostom that the merchant is not pleasing to God. In the "sum of all theology" Alexander Halensis wrote that moral qualities profits depend on the circumstances of 6:
1. From the person selling (which allowed the laity, the monks are not allowed);
2. His intentions (satisfaction or desire for profit);
3. The method of sale (by fair means or fraud);
4. Time of trade (on weekdays or holidays, designed for prayer or service of God);
5. Selling place (in the market or in holy places);
6. Relationship to the buyers (which is expressed in the level - excessive or normal - the selling price).
Analyzes the rationale arguments to grounding the doctrine of "fair price", show the evolution of the concept during XII - XIV centuries, as well as its relationship with the teachings of the scholastics on the percentage. The paper deals with various estimates of the concept of "fair value" of Thomas Aquinas, resulting in the history of economic thought. Critically analyzed the "contribution" of Thomas Aquinas in the development of the labor theory of value. Such an ambiguous approach to a "fair" price led to what some researchers considered the forerunner of Thomas Aquinas, the cost of labor history: I. M. Kulisher (1906), R. H. Tawney (1926), J.-B. Kraus (1930), S. Hagenauer (1931), A. Fanfani (1935), O.V. Trachtenberg (1957), Y. Mike. (1994) - and others have tried to try on his views with utility theory (since it appeared demand Aquinas had to implement trade) trying to try two beginnings consumer and labor: H. Contzen (1869), E. Schreiber (1913), O. Scbilling (1923), R. De Roover (1958), R. M. Nureev (2005). Therefore, in the second half of the XX century, many researchers refuse to consider a "fair price" as the basis of cost, and steel is identified with its current market price: A. Sapori (1955), J. T. Noonan (1957), L. W. Baldwin (1959), Dr. T. Stetsyura (2010). The paper analyzes the arguments "pro" and "contra" in favor of each of these approaches.
In a previous article, “The Coming Epoch of New Coalitions: Possible Scenarios of the Near Future” (Grinin and Korotayev 2011), it was preliminarily demonstrated that the turbulent events of late 2010 and 2011 in the Arab World may well be regarded as a start of the global reconfiguration. The subsequent events have confirmed this supposition. That is why in the present article we develop this important theme. The article offers a thorough analysis of the internal conditions of Arab countries on the eve of revolutionary events, as well as causes and consequences of the Arab Revolutions. The article also offers an analysis of similar historical World System reconfigurations starting with the sixteenth-century Reformation. The analysis is based on the theory (developed by the authors) of the periodical catch-ups experienced by the political component of the World System that tends to lag behind the World System economic component. Thus, we show that the asynchrony of development of various functional subsystems of the World System is a cause of the synchrony of major political changes. In otherwords,within the globalization process, political transformations tend to lag far behind economic transformations. And such lags cannot constantly increase, the gaps are eventually bridged, but in not quite a smooth way. The article also suggests an explanation why the current catch-up of the World System political component started in the Arab World.
Рецензия на одно из последних исследований, в котором шаманизм рассматривается как глобальный феномен.
В статье анализируются отношения между русским формализмом и структурализмом Тартуско-московской семиотической школы. Было бы ошибочно рассматривать отношения между формалистическим и структуралистским подходами как некую гармоничную преемственность. Напротив, представляется, что советский структурализм во многом сформировался, исходя из критики ряда формалистических положений. В частности, существуют некоторые корреляции между общими положениями формализма и их поздней трансформацией в лотмановских Лекциях по структуральной поэтике. Действительно, эта книга, задуманная как манифест нового подхода к структуре литературного текста, представляет собой ревизию и попытку усовершенствования ряда важных формалилистических понятий. Таким образом, канонизированная формализмом тенденция к отрицанию всех предшественников остается актуальной для последующих поколений исследователей.
Using Dunkl operators, we introduce a continuous family of canonical invariants of finite reflection groups. We verify that the elementary canonical invariants of the symmetric group are deformations of the elementary symmetric polynomials. We also compute the canonical invariants for all dihedral groups as certain hypergeometric functions.
Рецензия на книгу Т. Иглтона
The concept of the early state introduced by Henri J. M. Claessen and Peter Skalník appears to have been the last among the great epoch-making political-anthropological theories of the 60s and 70s of the last century (e.g., Sahlins [1960, 1963, 1968], Service [1962, 1975], Fried [1967, 1975]), which did more than just giving a new consideration of socio-political evolution, its stages and models. One may even say that these theories succeeded in filling the evolutionary gap between the pre-state forms and the state, which had formed by that moment in the academic consciousness due to the fact that the accumulated ethnographic and archaeological data could hardly fit the prior schemes.
Исследования в области эволюционной эпистемологии, проводимые последователями Конрада Лоренца в Институте по исследованию эволюции и познания в Альтенберге под Веной, продолжаются ныне в плане поиска интеграции подхода к пониманию эволюции биологических видов, подхода к изучению индивидуального развития живых организмов и экологического подхода, который начинает применяться широко, не только в естественнонаучном, но и гуманитарном и социальном знании. Все это получает новое название eco-evo-devo-perspective. На базе этологии Лоренца и его последователей ныне развивается когнитивная биология, которая олицетворяет сближение когнитивных наук (cognitive sciences), наук о жизни (life sciences) и исследований сложности (complexity studies). В качестве основы принимаются установки, предложенные австрийским биологом Паулем Альфредом Вайссом (1898-1989) и австрийским теоретиком систем Людвигом фон Берталанфи (1901-1972), которые ввели термин «теоретическая биология». Теоретическая биология в ее современном научном контексте представляет собой всеобъемлющую, кросс-дисциплинарную интеграцию понятий. Она включает в себя исследование генетических компонентов изменений, эволюции и развития, т.е. исследование взаимосвязи между эволюцией и развитием, между филогенезом и онтогенезом. Теоретическая биология включает в себя все современные теоретические подходы – вычислительную биологию (computational biology), биосемиотику, когнитивные исследования, натуралистические сдвиги в философии науки и эпистемологии
This Issue is composed of two panels, namely Section I (Special) and Section II. The major part of the issue belongs to Special Section ‘The Early State in Anthropological Theory’ withPeter Skalník, one of the founders of the early state concept,as its Guest Editor.
The processes of the growing societal complexity, emergence of new forms of social and political inequality, formation of pre-state or complex stateless polities belong to the most intriguing subjects of Anthropology and Social Philosophy.
Social Evolution & History has consistently published the research articles devoted to these issues. The chiefdom concept plays a special role within the theories that try to account for the transition from simple social systems to systems of greater complexity. Following its emergence in the 1950s this notion became an important heuristic means to advance Anthropology and Archaeology. It was also subjected to vigorous debates within which the participants denied the methodological significance of chiefdoms and the very notion of the chiefdom. These debates are becoming even more vigorous in connection with the rapid accumulation of information on ancient societies (see the dispute over chiefdoms between Timothy Pauketat and Robert Carneiro in 9.1). There is also much discrepancy in the definition of ‘chiefdom’ as some scholars consider it a standard phase of cultural evolution, a natural transition between the ‘Big Man’ society and the states of the ancient world.
It is not surprising that Mubarak’s administration “overlooked” the social explosion. Indeed, statistical data righteously claimed that the country was developing very successfully. Economic growth rates were high (even in the crisis years). Poverty and inequality levels were among the lowest in the Third World. Global food prices were rising, but the government was taking serious measures to mitigate their effect on the poorest layers of the population. Unemployment level (in per cent) was less than in many developed countries of the world and, moreover, was declining, and so were population growth rates. What would be the grounds to expect a full-scale social explosion? Of course, the administration had a sort of reliable information on the presence of certain groups of dissident “bloggers”, but how could one expect that they would be able to inspire to go to the Tahrir any great masses of people? It was even more difficult to figure out that Mubarak’s regime would be painfully struck by its own modernization successes of the 1980s, which led to the sharp decline of crude death rate and especially of infant and child mortality in 1975–1990. Without these successes many young Egyptians vehemently demanding Mubarak’s resignation (or even death) would have been destined to die in early childhood and simply would not have survived to come out to the Tahrir Square.
Перевод статьи о Г. Грассе из журнала Spiegel и вступительная статья.
The well-known sixth definition of the sophist in the homonymous dialogue contains a discussion of the elenchus (230b4-e3) which is often referred to as a manifestation of the late Plato’s attitude towards this method of argumentation. It is generally assumed that the definition of the sophist ‘of noble lineage’ given here should be attributed to Socrates as represented in earlier Plato’s dialogues. Since the elenchus is associated mainly with Socrates, little, if any, attention has been paid to the elenchus in the Sophist itself. This is only partly due to the fact that Socrates is not a leading character in the dialogue; more significantly, ever since Robinson the elenchus has been believed to be an essential preliminary — but a preliminary only — to the constructive search of knowledge. The Sophist, on the contrary, pursues a rather positive task of defining the sophist and, moreover, seems to complete this task successfully — not by means of the elenchus, but by means of the diairesis. The scope of this paper is to demonstrate that the mention of the elenchus at 230b4-e3 is not merely retrospective, and to draw attention to the elenctic dimension of the whole dialogue.
Рецензия на первое издание «Португальского дневника» известного американского ученого Мирча Элиаде.