Russian guidebooks evolved to become more practical and utilitarian at end of the 19th century, several decades later than in Europe. By analyzing an extensive body of Russian travel guides, we explore the network of actors who actively engaged in this transformation. We approach travel guides as complex artifacts that combine social interaction and market logistics, integrating elements from the past and present, from different geographical locations, and from the various professional activities of authors, publishers, and entrepreneurs to inform increasingly diverse consumers. Approaching travel guides collectively as a boundary object helps shed light on the processes of commercialization of travel and emergence of the tourism industry in the Russian Empire, which were set in motion not only by work arrangements of governmental bodies but also, and more significantly, by public and commercial initiatives.
At the core of this article is an interview to Boris Uspenskij, in which the protagonist of the Tartu-Moscow School (currently Head of the Laboratory of Linguistics and Semiotics at the National Research University “Higher School of Economics” in Moscow) develops on semiotics and the sense and aims of semiotic research, communication and its central role in human consciousness, semiotic theory and methodology. The interview is introduced by a brief essay, in which, by presenting and outlining the main thesis of Ego Loquens (one of the most recent works by Uspenskij) and its articulations, the author’s reﬂections on the semiotics of communication emerge
В «Илиаде» описывается чрезвычайно странная ситуация: великие боги, Посейдон и Аполлон, за плату возводят стену Трои для царя Лаомедонта, причем тот им ничего не платит, но прогоняет их с оскорблениями и угрозами (VII, 452–453; XXI, 441–457). За этим, по-видимому, стоит трансформация двух разных изначальных мотивов. Боги некогда строили крепость для богов. Поскольку Олимпийским богам, какими они предстают у Гомера, нет никакой нужды прятаться за непроницаемой стеной, славный труд был перенесен на земную крепость и при этом соединен с известным из фольклора типом историй о мастере и его ученике, работающих на коварного царя.
Despite the Stalinist myth, it was not the Bolsheviks but Indigenous intellectuals who introduced autonomy as a form of post-colonial settlement during the crisis and collapse of the Russian Empire to Siberia and Central Asia. Employing a comparative perspective, this article traces the development and implementation of two autonomous projects in Asian Russia. The Buryat-Mongol and Kazakh (Alash) Indigenous intellectuals synthesized local ideas and the globally circulating notions of national self-determination, enlightenment and democracy when articulating political unity of Indigenous peoples in national terms. By advocating their broader representation in existing and envisioned power structures they fought against discrimination and protected native languages and other forms of cultural expression from assimilation. This article shows that these Indigenous intellectuals were not silent recipients of the policies coming from the imperial and post- imperial centers but actively engaged in designing and ensuring the future of their communities.
The authors examine how the social status of the university professor has evolved in Russia in recent centuries in light of the historical concepts about the enslavement and emancipation of social groups proposed by Sergey Solovyov and Aleksandr Gradovsky. They use the metaphor of the “slave” [nevol’nik] to describe the dependent position of the professor in the university. The word encapsulates administrative tyranny, the spread of subordinate and submissive mentality in the university environment, and the curtailment of opportunities for professional selffulfillment. The authors present the university administration as the main agent responsible for enslaving professors. Administrators represent bureaucratic power and act to advance their own social ambitions.
This article traces the sources of allusions to the Byzantine Empire and the reasons for their presence in the writings of intellectuals and the press in 19th century Russia, outlining the major ideological and scholarly trends in which the Byzantine Empire was mentioned, referred or alluded to. The allusions or ‘echoes’ are analyzed in three contexts depending on the source type and the targeted audience: the writings of intellectuals, newspapers, and the declarations of war against Turkey. This three-layered analysis gives insights into the mechanisms of the Byzantine myth and the ways it worked within the structure of everyday life and the media. Ishow that Byzantine echoes were most present in the writings of intellectuals who attempted to give an outside overview of Russian geopolitics or historical development at the level of higher politics, including the opinions of foreign politicians.
В статье исследуются дискурсы тела, бытовавшие в латинской литературе зрелого Среднвековья. Особое внимание уделено небольшой анонимной поэме "Чрево", созданной около 1200 года. Ее античный по происхождению сюжет обретает особое значение в рамках новой культуры, возникшей на Западе в XII-XIII вв.
Внешняя политика Екатерины II традиционно считалась очень успешной. она выиграла три войны и включила большие территории в состав Российской империи, сделав свою страну одной из великих держав Европы. Но среди аргументов для такого рода оценки отсутствует собственная точка зренияЕкатерины . В статье утверждается, что императрице не удалось достичь ни одной из первоначальных целей, которые она выдвинула. Ее внешней политике не хватало продуманной долгосрочной стратегис и с самого начала она характеризовалась рядом ошибок. Екатерина действительно превратила Россию в великую державу, но с совершенно другой репутацией, чем она изначально планировала.
Рецензия на книгу "Children of the Gulag" - это документальные свидетельства судеб детей, чьи родители были осуждены как враги народа.
Throughout the whole Byzantine era we witness the coexistence of the spherical conception of the universe which has its’ roots in ancient science and the pattern of tabernacle based on the Holy Writ. Only once in 6th century the opposite views became a subject for a dispute, but even then rather as a part of a broader theological controversy. Since that time the two conceptions survived in different cultural milieus and thence had no point of intersection. Only in 12 century Michael Glycas writing his chronicle in a simple language approaches the issue. Proving that the universe has a shape of a sphere he tries to make scholar knowledge available to a general public. By doing so he even dares to come into contradiction with John Chrysostom himself.
It is often noted in the academic literature that chiefdoms frequently prove to be troublesome for scholars because of the disagreement as to whether to categorize this or that polity as a complex chiefdom or as an early state. This is no wonder, because complex chiefdoms, early states, as well as different other types of sociopolitical systems (large confederations, large self-governed civil and temple communities etc.) turn out to be at the same evolutionary level. In the present article it is argued that such complex societies can be considered as early state analogues. The most part of the article is devoted to the analysis of the most developed chiefdoms – the Hawaiian ones. It is argued that before the arrival of Cook there was no state in Hawaii. It should be classified as an early state analogue, i.e. a society of the same level of development as early states but lacking some state characteristics. It proceeds from the fact that the entire Hawaiian political and social organization was based on the strict rules and ideology of kinship, and the ruling groups represented endogamous castes and quasi-castes. The transition to statehood occurred only in the reign of Kamehameha I in the early 19th century. A scrupulous comparison between the Hawaiian chiefdoms and Hawaiian state is presented in the article.