Sectoral foresight activities often identify technological opportunities but leave the question open who will pursue them. Here, entrepreneurial activities have become increasingly important for the introduction and commercialization of new technological solutions. The same is true for Russia’s oil and gas industry, which requires a major technological upscaling to stay competitive. Promising start-ups though face often high barriers and fail to commercialize superior technological solutions.
This paper discusses the experiences of a Russian oilfield service start-up in commercializing a self-developed technology for increasing the productivity of oil wells.
The start-up faced conservatism from corporate decision makers, declining oil prices and suboptimal protection of intellectual property rights. The company overcame most barriers through moving into other markets outside of Russia, as closing a deal with customers in the USA and Canada went much faster than the extended business cycles of national oil companies.
This paper connects sectoral foresight activities to the real-life experience of a start-up. The findings suggest that entry barriers need to be included in the planning process to really pave the way for a greater impact.
The article is devoted to the use of renewable energy sources and the assessment of the feasibility of their use in the climatic conditions of the Western Urals. A simulation model that calculates the efficiency of a combined power installations (CPI) was (RES) developed. The CPI consists of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) and the vacuum solar collector (VCS) and is based on the research model. This model allows solving a wide range of problems in the field of energy and resource efficiency, and can be applied to other objects using RES. Based on the research recommendations for optimizing the management and the application of CPI were given. The optimization system will give a positive effect in the energy and resource consumption of low-rise residential buildings projects.
Численное и физическое моделирование на модельных образцах может предоставить данные о различных аспектах обработки металлов давлением , не прибегая к трудоемким и дорогостоящим натурным испытаниям . В этой статье представлены примеры моделирования формоизменения сляба с жидкой сердцевиной. Использование мягкого обжатия может повысить однородность структуры , которая улучшает качество литой заготовки. В математической модели, использованной в работе, влияние жидкого слоя моделируется распределенным по поверхности полости давлением, это позволяет рассчитать распределение интенсивности деформаций и напряжений в объеме образца. Также представлен новый метод исследования процесса мягкого обжатия. Он основан на физической модели сляба состоящего из закрытой твердой оболочки, изготовленной из сплава Вуда с включениями калиброванной свинцовой дроби. Этот подход позволяет по конечной форме дробинок определить интенсивность деформации в любой точке оболочки. Для имитации жидкого расплава, внутренняя полость заполнена желатином. Этот подход может быть применен для дальнейшего изучения процессов деформации и проникновения в сложные деформации металлических систем .
Computer simulation of the stamping of thin-walled parts with engraving and reinforcing ribs is considered, on the basis of the behavior of sand.
The projects of ITER and DEMO reactors showed that there are serious difficulties with solving the issues of plasma facing elements (PFE) based on the solid materials. Problems of PFE can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) – new material, in which liquid lithium fills a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, LTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II is a good basis for development of the project of steady-state operating lithium divertor module for Kazakhstan tokamak. At present the lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is development and manufacturing. The paper describes main design features of the module of lithium divertor (MLD). The first step of the hydraulic tests of MLD with fully assembled external thermo-stabilization system, which was connected to in-vessel lithium unit, were performed using ethanol as a model heat transfer media. Test results of MLD have shown that operating parameters of designed and manufactured system for thermo-stabilization are sufficient for proper operation; basic hydraulic characteristics of the system are close to expected values.
The prospects for the development of the electric power industry of Russia adopted at a regular stage of working out the Energy Strategy and the General Plan of Distribution of the Electric Power Facilities are discussed. The monitoring of the progress in the implementation of the Energy Strategies for the periods until 2020 and 2030 adopted in 2003 and 2009 has, in general, validated the correctness of the estimated volumes of the energy resource production under overestimation of the expected domestic demand owing to an excessively optimistic forecast of the real development of the economy. The priority lines of the national energy policy in electric power and allied industries proposed in the Energy Strategy for the period until 2035 are considered. The tools for implementation of most of the proposals and the effectiveness of their implementation have yet to be defined more concretely. The development of the energy sector and the electric power industry under the conservative and optimistic scenarios of the development of the country’s economy has been predicted using the SCANER modeling and information system, viz., the dynamics of the domestic consumption, export, and production of the primary energy and the electric power has been determined and the commissioning and structure of the required generating capacities and the consumption of the basic types of the energy resources by the electric power industry and the centralized heat supply systems has been optimized. Changes in the economic efficiency of the nuclear and thermal power plants under the expected improvements on their cost and performance characteristics and an increase in the domestic fuel prices are presented. The competitiveness of the wind and solar power production under Russian conditions has been evaluated considering the necessity of reservation and partial duplication of their capacities when operated in the power supply systems. When optimizing the electric power industry as a subsystem of the country’s energy sector, the required amounts of capital investments in the industry have been assessed. Based on the obtained data and the predicted prices of fuel in the main pricing zones of Russia, the ranges of changes in the prices of the electric power in agreement with the macroeconomic restrictions on their dynamics have been calculated.
Superplastic deformation behaviour of two aluminium-based AA7XXX type alloys with Sc and Zr additives distinguished by the presence and absence of coarse eutectic Al9FeNi particles are compared. An alloy with Al9FeNi particles exhibits high strain rate superplasticity at constant strain rate range of 5!10"3–8!10"2 s"1 with elongation of 915% due to extensive dynamic recrystallisation. Effective activation energy of superplastic deformation, surface relief of deformed samples, and grain structure evolution are analysed. Particle-depleted zones are found in the alloy with Al9FeNi particles at strains higher than 1.25.
This paper examines recent literature on achieving sustainable cities that incorporate a combined mitigation–adaptation approach towards improved urban resilience as a way of future-proofing. A multidisciplinary approach, which integrates scientific as well as ecopolitical frameworks, is found to benefit this sustainability discourse.
Работа посвящена оценке эффективности применения геотермального теплового насоса в климатических условиях Западного Урала. Был предложен системный подход, позволяющий оценить эффективность функционирования системы отопления научно-исследовательского модуля (макета жилого дома) на базе теплового насоса. Данный подход к оценке эффективности системы отопления предусматривает проведение многокритериального анализа функционирования объекта на основе данных натурных экспериментов и результатов имитационного моделирования, а также оценки экономической эффективности применения теплового насоса по сравнению с традиционными источниками тепла.
The development of power supplies for ionizing radiation detectors is a complex and difficult problem, especially if this concerns with autonomous mobile measuring systems. In this article, we describe the experience of the implementation of the autonomous solar energy supply for semiconductor ionizing radiation detectors.