В центре внимания статьи - аграрная политика России. Общая идея: политизация аграрной политика является причиной стагнации сельского хозяйства
В статье рассматриваются вопросы генерального межевания земель в Российской империи.
This review essay focuses on the new monograph by S. A. Smith Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017). As a leading expert in the social history of the Russian Revolution of 1917, Smith provides a comprehensive political, social, and cultural narrative of one of the central events in the global history of the twentieth century. Directed at a general readership, the book offers an excellent overview of existing Russian and Western scholarship, outlines the main course of events, introduces most important actors, and contains thought-provoking conclusions about the revolution. As seen from the title, Smith takes a longish view on the political rupture and includes a comprehensive analysis of social and political life of the Russian Empire, a brief overview of the First Russian Revolution (1905–1907) and the economic and political crisis of the First World War (1914–1918) before discussing the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Russian Civil War, and the period of the New Economic Policy (NEP). The book’s conclusion is a comprehensive essay attempting to comprehend the revolution and its consequences as a whole. As a nuanced social, political, and cultural history, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928 outlines the Revolution of 1917 as a tectonic shift which cannot be reduced to a simple change of the elites in the Russian imperial formation. Smith’s brilliant work will be invaluable for the students of history, both in Russia and abroad, and all those who are interested in global history in general and the Russian Revolution in particular.
Трансформация исследований и разработок в России.
This paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic factors—particularly, the rate of time preferences and alcohol consumption in Russia. The rate of time preferences shows an individual’s willingness to delay the utility from consumption to future periods of time. The relationship between this rate and indicators of alcohol consumption is examined separately for men and women. We find significant differences in men’s and women’s patterns of consumption of alcohol. Our findings suggest that the rate of time preferences, along with age, educational level, income, place of residence, and health substantially, affects an individual’s decision to drink alcohol. We show that employment status is endogenous to alcohol consumption and that estimating a system of binary equations is necessary.
Alcohol consumption is known to have an impact on various aspects of individual’s life. This paper is based on the idea that the alcohol consumption is very likely to influence on subjective well-being. Using data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE (RLMS-HSE) in this paper the links between alcohol consumption and subjective well-being is examined. RLMS-HSE data shows that a significant number of individuals consumed alcohol in the last month in Russia, the proportion of men drinkers is extremely high, and is around 60-70%. Two sources of endogeneity are discussed in the paper: individual characteristics, such as one’s value system and traits of character; and the existing environment, for example, a negative macroeconomic situation. Empirical estimates are obtained using probit adapted OLS approach. Results suggest that reasonable consumption of alcohol improves the level of life satisfaction. However, alcohol abuse produces negative effects on life satisfaction.
The paper analyzes the impact of nighttime alcohol trade restrictions in regions of Russia on the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Evaluation has been carried out based on the regional Rosstat data and individual data of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey by the HSE for 2009–2010. Econometric analysis has revealed a positive correlation between the amount of consumed alcohol and the duration of the allowed time for alcohol sales in the region. In addition, it has been found that night restrictions are more efficient than morning restrictions in the context of a decrease in alcohol consumption. The obtained results indicate the expediency of further tightening of the restrictive policy.
We experimentally study the effects of allotment—the division of an item into homogeneous units—in independent private value auctions. We compare a bundling first-price auction with two equivalent treatments where allotment is implemented: a two-unit discriminatory auction and two simultaneous single-unit first-price auctions. We find that allotment in the form of a discriminatory auction generates a loss of efficiency with respect to bundling. In the allotment treatments, we observe large and persistent bid spread, and the discriminatory auction is less efficient than simultaneous auctions. We provide a unified interpretation of our results that is based on both a non-equilibrium response to the coordination problem characterizing the simultaneous auction format and a general class of behavioral preferences that includes risk aversion, joy of winning and loser’s regret as specific cases. © 2016 Economic Science Association
A lower bound is derived for the value of an option by applying threshold decision rules based on the ratio of the underlying asset values. When the asset volatility ratio is equal to the correlation coefficient, the lower bound is equal to the maximum value obtained by optimizing a function of two variables represented as the sum of a rapidly converging series.
Современная международная валютная система из-за ее недостатков требует кардинальных изменений. Поэтому, экономистами всего мира предлагаются варианты создания альтернативных международных валют, которые бы позволили международной валютной системе работать эффективнее. Важно, создавая новую международную валюту, анализировать и учитывать опыт всех предшествующих международных валют. Поэтому, в начале статьи, последовательно анализируются недостатки каждого варианта фактически существующей и существовавшей международной валюты. Опираясь на проведенный анализ, обосновывается необходимость введения новой международной валютной единицы, и задаются требования, которым она должна удовлетворять. Далее в работе предлагается альтернативный, теоретически возможный вариант международной валюты - валюта, привязанная к корзине товаров. На абстрактном примере определяется ее содержание и механизм обращения.
It has always been peculiar to evolutionists to compare social and biological evolution, the latter as visualized by Charles Darwin.1 But it also seems possible and correct to draw an analogy with another great discovery in the field of evolutionary biology, with the homologous series of Nikolay Vavilov (1921; 1927; 1967). However, there is no complete identity between cultural parallelism and biological homologous series. Vavilov studied the morphological homology, whereas our focus within the realm of social evolution is the functional one. No doubt, the morphological homomorphism also happens in the process of social evolution (e.g. in the Hawaii Islands where a type of the sociocultural organization surprisingly similar with the ones of other highly developed parts of Polynesia had independently formed by the end of the 18th century [Sahlins 1972/1958; Goldman 1970; Earle 1978]). But this topic is beyond the present paper’s problématique.