We show that a distribution of the type of the Bose-Einstein distribution describes the van der Waals gas, while the Fermi-Dirac distribution describes the van der Waals liquid. We present the construction of the binodal, the melting curve, and the liquid-to-amorphous-solid transition under negative pressure. The notion of correlation sphere and the two-scale picture on the Hougen-Watson diagram are used. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
A fluid flow along a plate with small irregularities on the surface is considered for large Reynolds numbers. The boundary layer has a double-deck structure, i.e., both a thin boundary layer and the classical Prandtl boundary layer are present. It is proved that the solution of the boundary-value problem thus obtained exists and is unique in the Prandtl boundary layer, and the stability of the solution is investigated at large times. The results of numerical modeling are given. Supported by the Basic Research Program of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics.” © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.