Кибернетика и системные исследования развивались в середине XX века и открыли возможность описания и сравнения феноменов, используя один и тот же язык. Понятия, которые возникли в рамках кибернетики и системных исследований, распространились практически во все дисциплины, многие из них сейчас используются в научных исследованиях сложных систем. Кибернетика и системные исследования открывают возможности, чтобы внести вклад к решение соответствующих проблем, но путь к этой цели не является прямым. Эта статья суммирует идеи, представленные авторами во время дискуссии на круглом столе в 2012 году, посвященном рассмотрению прошлого, настоящего и будущего кибернетики и системных исследований.
This article considers concrete manifestations of the politogenesis multilinearity and the variation of its forms; it analyzes the main causes that determined the politogenetic pathway of a given society. The respective factors include the polity's size, its ecological and social environment. The politogenesis should be never reduced to the only one evolutionary pathway leading to the statehood. The early state formation was only one of many versions of deve-lopment of complex late archaic social systems. The author designates various complex non-state political systems as early state analogues. The early state analogue posed a real alternative to the state for a rather long period of time, whereas in many eco-logically marginal regions they could compete quite seriously with the state sometimes until recently. Thus, it was only in the final count that the state became the leading form of political organization of complex societies. The very pathways to statehood had a few versions. One may group them into two main types: ‘vertical’ and ‘horizontal’. Within the ‘vertical’ model the state formation took place in a direct way, i.e. directly from small pre-state polities to primitive statehood. Within the ‘horizontal’ model we first observe the formation of early state analogues that were quite comparable to the state as regards their complexity, whereas later those analogues were transformed into states.
This article is very closely connected with another article published in the same issue of this journal (Grinin and Korotayev2009b).
Tsoi Wall or thousands inscriptions and drawings on the city wall appeared in Moscow in 1990 as a spontaneous reaction of the city dwellers on a tragic death of Victor Tsoy, a founder and frontman of rock group “Kino”. Today the Wall exists in multiple modes and due to the contribution of many: unnoticed in a daily routine authors and the “keepers” of the Wall, curious passers by and tourists that purposely include the Wall into their city exploration routes. Multiplicity and openness of the Wall allow to include it into different contexts and time series, to reveal it in front of completely different audience and make it attractive for actual and virtual visitors, and, for sure, for curious passing-by theoreticians, like we are. Paper examines why Tsoi became the cultural hero and who are the other ones remembered by the various audiences? what is the role of urban public space in this long-term commemoration? how this place is used now?
Оригинальный мыслитель, выдающийся представитель русской религиозной философии первой трети ХХ века, Бердяев предъявил тему творчества в качестве духовного манифеста современности. В своих многочисленных работах он очертил контуры новой духовности, различая в ней метафизическую и социально-культурную проекции.
In this paper, I try to demonstrate how critical empiricism and philosophical reasoning intertwine with each other and affected the development of medicine. It is a case study considering the problems of generation and semen in the writings of Aristotle and Galen via relationship between such concepts as matter, form, movement, change, causes and some others. The main question addressed in the paper is the reason of Galen’s return to Hippocratic paradigm of two-semina (male and female). I argue that the reason is two-fold: 1) Different philosophical reasoning and erroneous understanding of some aspects of Aristotle’s embryological model by Galen. 2) Empirical discoveries, which proved to be wrong. I demonstrate that Galen’s understanding of form/matter relationship, and his view on matter as an underling principle conditioned his understanding of the notion of physical change, that allowed him to speak about conception only as quantitative mixture between equal substrata. Finally, I show that Galen’s view on teleology and his limited understanding of formal/final vs efficient causes and their relationship forced him to claim the inadequacy of Aristotle’s biology and necessitated Galen to introduce emendations in definitions of seminal faculties of genders and reproductive fluids.
This article analyzes a number of issues in contemporary Russian Orthodoxy from the perspective of the link between religion and violence. After a brief survey of the theoretical apparatus, it turns to the imagery of “cosmic war” in the discourse of official representatives of the Moscow Patriarchate and of Orthodox nationalists; to the ways that imagery affects questions of ethics and morality; to the events of 2012 associated with the performance of Pussy Riot and the reactions to it; and to examples of symbolic and actual violence. The analysis will conclude with eschatological images of “cosmic conquest” and with what might be called the “sacrificial crisis” of Orthodox parish subculture. This article then attempts to draw links of religion and violence on the theoretical level.
The research investigates the concept of a “subjectless consciousness” and deconstruction of a classical subject in Western philosophy of the XX-th XXI-th century (especially in structuralism and post-structuralism). It also investigates the “non-dual” consciousness (jñāna), “understanding wisdom” (prajñāpārmitā) and an extra-subjective “consciousness treasury” (ālayavijñāna) in Māhāyana Buddhism (darśanas of mādhyamaka-śūnyavāda and yogacāra-vijñānavada). It also explores a clarification to what degree the Western concepts of “subjectless consciousness“, «extra-subject consciousness”, “structural apriori”, “rhizome” etc. may be correlated with the concepts of Māhāyana Buddhist philosophy.
Статья посвящена вопросу о влиянии революции на публичное пространство.