Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio.
The article problematises the role of real estate in geopolitical circulations. The internationalisation of real estate increases mutual dependencies and vulnerabilities between nation states and, therefore, calls for a better appreciation of the geopolitical externalities and exteriorities of real estate. The article brings together disjoint bodies of literature on real estate globalisation, assemblage theory, and international relations to show how real estate is a case of the geopolitics of the multiple – geopolitics that is being assembled by diverse and distributed actors, discourses, and materialities representing the contingent and emergent formation of connections and considerations, which affect the ways how foreign relations are negotiated today. The argument is substantiated by considering several dimensions of the real estate/geopolitics nexus: (1) external influences over domestic real estate markets; (2) the implications of outward real estate investment; and (3) state-led mega-projects conveying externally the power of the state. These dimensions are considered empirically in the context of the renewed geopolitical tensions between a resurgent Russia and the West. Overall, the article calls for a better positioning of real estate in the conceptualisations of soft power, state power, and geopolitics.
Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies.
Despite the burgeoning literature on creative cities, seldom explored is the context of cities rich in cultural capital but more orthodox in their approach to preserving the autonomy of culture. This article discusses the status of artistic spaces occupying abandoned industrial premises (‘creative brownfields') in historic cities that traditionally shape their policies around prestigious cultural institutions (‘cities of high culture'). Based on comparative insights from St Petersburg and Lausanne, the article explores the relations and tensions between mainstream cultural governance and creative brownfields. While there is no lack of creative brownfields in these cities, their wider urban impact is found to be marginal; moreover, these sites represent dispersed instances of temporary occupations rather than situated clusters of creative actors. More than coincidental, this (lack of) spatialization is argued to result from a particular governmentality—that of high culture—which disregards, rather than promotes, spaces of alternative cultural governance. The article conceptualizes creative brownfields in cities of high culture as the ‘soft infrastructure' of cultural production, in contrast with those in ‘creative cities' as the ‘hard infrastructure' of urban production. The article also calls for a recognition of the local context of regulation and accumulation in understanding the cultural/urban interplay.
We tested whether mirror visual feedback (MVF) from a moving hand induced high gamma oscillation (HGO) response in the hemisphere contralateral to the mirror and ipsilateral to the self-paced movement. MEG was recorded in 14 subjects under three conditions: bilateral synchronous movements of both index fingers (BILATERAL), movements of the right hand index fingerwhile observing the immobile left index finger (NOMIRROR), and movements of the right hand index fingerwhile observing its mirror reflection (MIRROR). The right hemispheric spatiospectral regions of interests (ROIs) in the sensor space, sensitive to bilateral movements, were found by statistical comparison of the BILATERAL spectral responses to baseline. For these ROIs, the post-movement HGO responses were compared between the MIRROR and NOMIRROR conditions. We found that MVF from the moving hand, similarly to the real movements of the opposite hand, induced HGOs (55–85 Hz) in the sensorimotor cortex. This MVF effect was frequency-specific and did not spread to oscillations in other frequency bands. This is the first study demonstrating movement-related HGO induced by MVF from the moving hand in the absence of proprioceptive feedback signaling. Our findings support the hypothesis that MVF can trigger the feedback-based control processes specifically associated with perception of one's own movements.
The lophophore is a tentacle organ unique to the lophophorates. Recent research has revealed that the organization of the nervous and muscular systems of the lophophore is similar in phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans. At the same time, the evolution of the lophophore in certain lophophorates is still being debated. Innervation of the adult lophophore has been studied by immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy for only two brachiopod species belonging to two subphyla: Linguliformea and Rhynchonelliformea. Species from both groups have the spirolophe, which is the most common type of the lophophore among brachiopods. In this study, we used transmission electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to describe the innervation of the most complex lophophore (the plectolophe) of the rhynchonelliform species Coptothyris grayi. The C. grayi lophophore (the plectolophe) is innervated by three brachial nerves: the main, second accessory, and lower. Thus, the plectolophe lacks the accessory brachial nerve, which is typically present in other studied brachiopods. All C. grayi brachial nerves contain two types of perikarya. Because the accessory nerve is absent, the cross nerves, which pass into the connective tissue, have a complex morphology: each nerve consists of two ascending and one descending branches. The outer and inner tentacles are innervated by several groups of neurite bundles: one frontal, two lateral, two abfrontal, and two latero-abfrontal (the latter is present in only the outer tentacles). Tentacle nerves originate from the second accessory and lower brachial nerves. The inner and outer tentacles are also innervated by numerous peritoneal neurites, which exhibit acetylated alpha-tubulin-like immunoreactivity. The nervous system of the lophophore of C. grayi manifests several evolutionary trends. On the one hand, it has undergone simplification, i.e., the absence of the accessory brachial nerve, which is apparently correlated with a reduction in the complexity of the lophophore’s musculature. On the other hand, C. grayi has a prominent second accessory nerve, which contains large groups of frontal perikarya, and also has additional nerves extending from the both ganglia to the medial arm; these features are consistent with the complex morphology of the C. grayi plectolophe. In brachiopods, the evolution of the lophophore nervous system apparently involved two main modifications. The first modification was the appearance and further strengthening of the second accessory brachial nerve, which apparently arose because of the formation of a double row of tentacles instead of the single row of the brachiopod ancestor. The second modification was the partial or complete reduction of some brachial nerves, which was correlated with the reduced complexity of the lophophore musculature and the appearance of skeletal structures that support the lophophore.