We compare the Egalitarian rule (aka Egalitarian Equivalent) and the Competitive rule (aka Competitive Equilibrium with Equal Incomes) to divide bads (chores). They are both welfarist: the competitive disutility profile(s) are the critical points of their Nash product on the set of efficient feasible profiles. The C rule is Envy Free, Maskin Monotonic, and has better incentives properties than the E rule. But, unlike the E rule, it can be wildly multivalued, admits no selection continuous in the utility and endowment parameters, and is harder to compute. Thus in the division of bads, unlike that of goods, no rule normatively dominates the other.
To what extent do politicians reward voters who are members of their own ethnic or racial group? Using data from large cities in the United States, we study how black employment outcomes are affected by changes in the race of the cities’ mayors between 1973 and 2004. We find that relative to whites, black employment and labor force participation rise, and the black unemployment rate falls, during the tenure of black mayors. Black employment gains in municipal government jobs are particularly large, which suggests that our results capture causal effects of black mayors. Black mayors also lead to higher black incomes relative to white incomes. We show that our results continue to hold when we compare the treated cities to alternative control groups of cities, explicitly control for changing attitudes towards blacks or use regression discontinuity analysis to compare cities that elected black and white mayors in close elections. (JELD7, H7, J7).
The paper is dedicated premises of origin and patterns of development of the doctrine of “fair price” Aquinas. Showing contradictions exchange of agricultural products to urban goods and services, resulting in a developed feudalism. For agricultural products incoming to the city market, the situation was characterized as the free competition, while medieval guild tried to create a monopoly conditions for the production and sale of its products, which objectively leads to distortion of prices. Under these conditions, the development of the problem of "fair price" becomes extremely important. The paper shows how scholasticism using theological methodology, trying to solve this problem.
Greed condemned, was considered evil and sin of avarice considered the source of all evils. This tradition goes back to the interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew John Chrysostom. Alexander Halensis one of the first attempted rehabilitation of commercial activities and even tried to criticize the position of the Pseudo-Chrysostom that the merchant is not pleasing to God. In the "sum of all theology" Alexander Halensis wrote that moral qualities profits depend on the circumstances of 6:
1. From the person selling (which allowed the laity, the monks are not allowed);
2. His intentions (satisfaction or desire for profit);
3. The method of sale (by fair means or fraud);
4. Time of trade (on weekdays or holidays, designed for prayer or service of God);
5. Selling place (in the market or in holy places);
6. Relationship to the buyers (which is expressed in the level - excessive or normal - the selling price).
Analyzes the rationale arguments to grounding the doctrine of "fair price", show the evolution of the concept during XII - XIV centuries, as well as its relationship with the teachings of the scholastics on the percentage. The paper deals with various estimates of the concept of "fair value" of Thomas Aquinas, resulting in the history of economic thought. Critically analyzed the "contribution" of Thomas Aquinas in the development of the labor theory of value. Such an ambiguous approach to a "fair" price led to what some researchers considered the forerunner of Thomas Aquinas, the cost of labor history: I. M. Kulisher (1906), R. H. Tawney (1926), J.-B. Kraus (1930), S. Hagenauer (1931), A. Fanfani (1935), O.V. Trachtenberg (1957), Y. Mike. (1994) - and others have tried to try on his views with utility theory (since it appeared demand Aquinas had to implement trade) trying to try two beginnings consumer and labor: H. Contzen (1869), E. Schreiber (1913), O. Scbilling (1923), R. De Roover (1958), R. M. Nureev (2005). Therefore, in the second half of the XX century, many researchers refuse to consider a "fair price" as the basis of cost, and steel is identified with its current market price: A. Sapori (1955), J. T. Noonan (1957), L. W. Baldwin (1959), Dr. T. Stetsyura (2010). The paper analyzes the arguments "pro" and "contra" in favor of each of these approaches.
The paper aims to add to the literature on the connection between corporate governance and company valuation. We refer to the case of the Russian banks to suggest that connection between gpvernance and the stock price cannot be established in a convincing way due to data scarcity. Russia's stock market can supply sufficient statistical material for a study involving just two large state-controlled banks. This discussion is potentially relevant for other economies that share institutional characteristics such as high ownership concentration, the shallowness of the stock market, and substantial role of state-controlled firms.
В данной работе рассмотрено, как футбольное спонсорство влияет на эффективность работы спонсоров. Мы используем модель с инструментальой переменной и фиксированными эффектами, чтобы избежать эндогенности в связи с пропущенными переменными и обратной причинно-следственной связью. В качестве инструментальной переменной использованы данные по количеству совместных упоминаний в твиттере футбольной команды и компании-спонсора. Данные были собраны для основных футбольных лиг Европы. Результаты показывают, что спонсорство футбольного клуба является скорее благотворительностью, чем коммерческим проектом. Следовательно, акционеры должны быть информированы о заключении спонсорских контрактов, а руководство компании должно тщательно анализировать предпосылки прогнозирования денежных потоков от подобных проектов.
Why do seemingly irrational superstitions persist?We analyze the widely held belief among Asians that children born in the Year of the dragon are superior. We use pooled cross section data from the U.S. Current Population Survey to show that Asian immigrants to the United States born in the 1976 year of the dragon are more educated than comparable immigrants from non-dragon years. In contrast, no such educational effect is noticeable for dragonyear children in the general U.S. population. We also provide evidence that Asian mothers of dragon year babies are more educated, richer, and slightly older than Asian mothers of non-dragon year children. This suggests that belief in the greater superiority of dragon-year children is self-fulfilling since the demographic characteristics associated with parents who are more willing and able to adjust their birthing strategies to have dragon children are also correlated with greater investment in their human capital.
In this study, we analyzed the data about the technological diversification of export composition of upper middle-income countries and the impact of the technological composition of exported goods on GDP growth. Using the dynamic panel data analysis techniques for 34 countries between 1995-2015, we confirmed that exports of high technological products will have a significant positive impact on economic growth for upper middle-income countries as well as medium technological products’ exports which have a limited effect. The exports of low-tech products will have a negative effect for economic growth in the long run.