Mamardashvili suggests that one can only come to understand the Viennese experience in relation to one’s own personal experience, the experience of “one’s own dignity of being.” At some stage one is supposed to experience “the passionate feeling of being alive and the repeated inalienability of one’s own existence.” The problem is that an unexpected adversary – culture – obstructs this passion through its central tenet: a human individual ceases to be an animal and becomes human by submitting to the norms of culture. To this, the philosopher’s objection is: “being, which is the highest form of man’s vanity, has no guarantees, there is no mechanism which can produce the effect of being or existence in a consistent and reliable manner.” The great Austrians, to their credit according to Mamardashvili, restored this proud feeling of the non-guarantee of being to culture.
This text argues that Hegel's Concept, insofar as it has already deconstructed all opposed and fixed standpoints, supersedes deconstruction. Reducing the Logic and Phenomenology to the same kind of schematic formalism for which Hegel criticized his predecessors (Fichte and Schelling), Derrida misses the ways in which Absolute Spirit shows itself as the “bacchanalian revel wherein no member is not drunk.” Thus, this article defends Hegel against Derrida on Derrida's terms.
What is the origin of language? For Levinas, from Aristotle to von Humboldt, the tradition of Western metaphysics has understood language as a representation of reality, going beyond or transcending experience. In this way, language is a metaphor that substitutes for experience—and all language is originally metaphorical. Experience however, is essentially inexpressible—for it not only transcends language, but it does so because experience is always experience of the other, of that which remains infinitely other. And language reminds us of its failure (a failure which Derrida sees, ironically, as a success) to express this other by maintaining a trace of the inexpressible in every expression—and metaphor is failure of expression par excellence. But what is the origin of this original failure? In fact, it can be found in the way in which language makes metaphors (which is the way in which it makes itself, transcends itself, substitutes for itself, becomes other than itself). For as Aristotle reminds us: metaphor-making (indeed, all language, every word and deed) is poiēsis—and the origin of poiēsis is improvisation. If we have, however, discovered the origin of language in improvisation—but what is that?
Начиная с эпохи Просвещения, способность человека к совершенствованию, или perfectibilité, обычно называют его основополагающей чертой. Однако этот термин, введенный в философский словарь Ж.-Ж. Руссо, постепенно приобрел дополнительный смысл в немалой степени благодаря работам Н. де Кондорсе, Т. Мальтуса и Ч. Дарвина. Так человек, обладающий perfectibilité, не просто способен к работе над собой, но, совершенствуя свои способности, изменяет и окружающую его среду – как социальную, так и природную, – создавая более благоприятные условия для своего существования. Неслучайно именно perfectibilité стала ключевой категорией в теории общественного прогресса французских мыслителей в эпоху Просвещения, несмотря на то, что позднее она была подвергнута критике, прежде всего английскими авторами, обосновавшими ее органицистскую и биологическую природу, не исключив при этом perfectibilité из философского словаря, но дав этой категории иную эволюционистскую трактовку. О противопоставлении и взаимных контраргументах этих двух позиций и идет речь в данной статье. Кроме того, проводится параллель с некоторыми идеями С. Капицы, оказавшимся не только критиком мальтузианства, но и прямым последователем Кондорсе. Идеи совершенствования человека в современную эпоху получили развитие в трансгуманистическом движении. Кондорсе оказался как никогда актуален, а его теория прогресса человеческого разума, повлиявшая на становление современной исторической науки, сегодня нуждается в переосмыслении в новейшей перспективе усовершенствования ментальной и физической человеческой природы, в том числе с помощью современных технологий.
В статье затрагивается одна из сложнейших философских тем – проблема интенциональности сознания. Автор стремится найти ответ на вопрос, можно ли считать интенциональность универсальной антропологической характеристикой. В статье сравниваются на основании главных трудов Ж.-П. Сартра и священных текстов буддизма и индуизма две философские позиции в отношении интенциональности. Сначала автор рассматривает определённые стратегии западной метафизики (феноменологию и экзистенциализм), рассматривающие сознание как то, что следует «открыть» и описать в качестве интенционального, а затем – древнеиндийскую метафизику, полагающую «лишение» сознания интенциональности в качестве сотериологической цели.
The article examines Russian Harry Potter fan fiction as an anthropological source. The analysis focuses on fan fiction as a cultural practice, Russian online communities devoted to the continuation of Harry Potter stories and their common values, reading strategies and practices of writing. Given that Russian Harry Potter fan fiction writers and readers are mostly women, the author pays attention to gender norms as they are represented in fan fiction texts and reading practices. The article explores the central role that individual choice plays in fan fiction axiology, the representations of sex and corresponding problems of the language, the images of family which are produced and discussed in the community and the possibilities that slash as a fictional frame provides for the manifestation of the community’s essential values.
The dynamic approach to understanding of the human consciousness, its cognitive activities and cognitive architecture is one of the most promising approaches in the modern epistemology and cognitive science. The conception of embodied mind is under discussion in the light of nonlinear dynamics and of the idea co-evolution of complex systems developed by the Moscow scientific school. The cognitive architecture of the embodied mind is rather complex: data from senses and products of rational thinking, the verbal and the pictorial, logic and intuition, the analytical and synthetic abilities of perception and of thinking, the local and the global, the analogue and the digital, the archaic and the post-modern are intertwined in it. In the process of cognition, co-evolution of embodied mind as an autopoietic system and its surroundings takes place. The perceptual and mental processes are bound up with the structure of human body. Nonlinear and circular connecting links between the subject of cognition and the world constructed by him can be metaphorically called a nonlinear cobweb of cognition. Cognition is an autopoietic activity because it is directed to the search of elements that are missed; it serves to completing integral structures. According to the theory of blow-up regimes in complex systems elaborated by Sergey P.Kudyumov and his followers, the idea of co-evolution is connected with the concept of tempoworlds. To co-evolve means to start to develop in one and the same tempoworld and to use the possibility – in case of a proper intergation into a whole structure – to accelerate the tempo of evolution. The cognitive activities of the human being can be considered as a movement (active walk) in landscapes of co-evolution when he cognizes and changes environment and is changed himself by the very activities. The similar conclusion can be drawn from Francisco Varela’s conception of enactive cognition.
This article analyzes some important aspects of socioeconomic and political development of the world in the near future. Thefuturealwaysstemsfromthepresent. Thefirstpartofthearticleisdevotedtothesteadyofsomecrucialeventsofthepresent, whichcouldberegardedasprecursors of forthcoming fundamental changes. In particular, it is shown that the turbulent events of late 2010 and 2011 in the Arab World may well be regarded as a start of the global reconfiguration. The article also offers an analysis of some aspects of the global financial system that, according to the authors, notwithstanding all its negative points, performs certain important positive functions including the 'insurance' of socialguaranties at the global scale.The second part of the article considers some global scenarios of the World System’s new future and describes a few characteristics of the forthcoming “Epoch of New Coalitions”. Thearticleattemptstoanswersuchquestionsasthe following: What are the implications of the economic weakening of the USA as the World System center? Will the future World System have a leader? Will it experience a global governance deficit? Will the world fragmentation increase?
“Arab Spring”, World System’s leader, world reconfiguration, global crisis, sovereignty
The structure of G.V. Florovsky’s concept of neopatristic synthesis is analyzed and reassessed here in light of the current state of philosophy and theology. As a result, the concept receives a new configuration, in which its core is formed by the ancient Orthodox idea of the Living Tradition, understood as the union of the work of the Church Fathers and the hesychast practice. As for the idea of Christian Hellenism, which formed the core of the previous configuration, it has been relegated to the periphery of the concept. This article reveals the philosophic potential of the concept that has not yet been realized — its hermeneutical aspects, its connection with the mainstream of phenomenology, and so forth. The new configuration is then projected onto the situation of Russian philosophy. I demonstrate that the concept possessed vast conceptual, epistemological, and methodological resources capable of stimulating the creation of a new philosophic formation that would be distinct from the modernist thinking of the Silver Age. However, those resources have remained untapped.
We re-examine the problem of existential import by using classical predicate logic. Our problem is: How to distribute the existential import among the quantified propositions in order for all the relations of the logical square to be valid? After defining existential import and scrutinizing the available solutions, we distinguish between three possible cases: explicit import, implicit non-import, explicit negative import and formalize the propositions accordingly. Then, we examine the 16 combinations between the 8 propositions having the first two kinds of import, the third one being trivial and rule out the squares where at least one relation does not hold. This leads to the following results: (1) three squares are valid when the domain is non-empty; (2) one of them is valid even in the empty domain: the square can thus be saved in arbitrary domains and (3) the aforementioned eight propositions give rise to a cube, which contains two more (non-classical) valid squares and several hexagons. A classical solution to the problem of existential import is thus possible, without resorting to deviant systems and merely relying upon the symbolism of First-order Logic (FOL). Aristotle's system appears then as a fragment of a broader system which can be developed by using FOL.
The Russian version of the multiculturalism policy is older and more complex in terms of its consequences than the European one. Multiculturalism as a form of promoting group and communal identity was an integral part of Stalin’s policy of creating ethnic republics, as well as ethnic areas and regions.
It is recognized widely enough that a pre-state society in order to get transformed into a state must have a certain size of territory and population, a necessary degree of sociocultural complexity and an ability to produce sufficient quantities of surplus. However, sometimes cultures significantly exceed required levels of those parameters without forming states. In addition to this, we know historically and ethnographically a considerable number of stateless societies not at all inferior to the early state societies with respect to their territory, population, sociocultural and/or political complexity. So, the question is: how to classify such societies? Compared to unquestionably pre-state societies, such as, for example, simple chiefdoms, they are not only larger in size but much more complex as well. In certain sense, they can be regarded as being at the same level of sociocultural development as early-state societies. And, since both types of societies faced similar problems and solved similar tasks, I denote complex stateless societies as early state analogues. This article is an attempt to analyze such analogues and compare them with early states.