This paper analyses the spatial patterns of internal migration in Russia using data on net migration gain/loss in 2200 municipal formations (MFs) in Russia for the 2012–2013 period. These MFs are grouped into age categories that correspond with different life-course stages. We define 16 classes of MFs with similar migration balance patterns for multiple age groups and characterize the most typical classes. The results of our analysis show that age-specific migration patterns are determined by the spatial characteristics of MFs—in particular, a municipality’s localization in the centreperiphery system and the advantages of the geographic location (e.g., resort area, natural resources). We find that a city’s population size and administrative status are also important migration factors. In addition, we reveal differences in inter-regional and intra-regional migration and define their structural characteristics. An analysis of age-specific net migration contributes to our understanding of internal migration factors and allows us to assess the impact of migration on a municipality’s age structure. In large cities and regional centres, migration results in younger populations, while in peripheral areas, it speeds up population ageing. In most of the MFs that we analysed, the migration of youth and adults ‘moves’ in opposite directions. This factor accelerates the impact of migration on the population age structure in areas of destination and origin and significantly influences a municipality’s current and prospective demographic parameters as well as the population’s patterns of settlement and spatial concentration or de-concentration both nationally and regionally.
Изучается модель Кругмана Ядро-Периферия в общем случае с несимметричными регионами, для которого получена полная характеризация краткосрочных и долгосрочных равновесий. В предположении об отсутствии мобильности труда дается описание поведения номинальной и реальной заработных плат. Кроме того, показано, что относительные номинальные и реальные заработные платы могут как возрастать, так и убывать с ростом населения соответствующего региона. В предположении о мобильности труда дается исчерпывающее описание возможных схем эволюционирования экономики в зависимости от степени свободы торговли. Показано, что в случае значительной асимметрии в распределении аграрного населения между регионами, все мобильные работники с неизбежгностью концентрируются в регионе с большей долей аграрного населения.
Abstract The role of genes in the expression of aggression and masculinity traits in humans has been a focus of recent behavioral genetic studies. This is the first study on the variation in aggression, the digit ratio (the ratio between the second and the fourth digits, 2D:4D), the directional asymmetry in 2D:4D (DR-L) and polymorphisms of the AR, DRD4, and 5-HTTL genes in simple hunter-gatherers, namely the Hadza of Tanzania (142 adult men). The distribution of AR, DRD4E3, and 5-HTTLPR genotypes and allele frequencies in Hadza was compared to other African populations on which the data were available. Hadza and Ariaal differed significantly in the distributions of frequencies of AR alleles with different numbers of CAG repeats. Hadza population was similar to other African populations in the distribution of allelic frequencies of the DRD4E3 locus, and to Afro- Americans in the distribution of allelic types of the 5- HTTLPR locus. We found no influence of AR gene on the right hand 2D:4D ratio,DR-L, and any of aggression subscales of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Although, a weak positive correlation between CAG repeats and the left hand 2D:4Dwas found. The multiple regression analysis with digit ratios, DR-L and aggression subscales of AQ as dependent variables and the three gene candidates (AR, DRD4E3, and 5-HTTLPR) as independent variables revealed the following: men with lower number of CAG repeats had significantly lower left hand2D:4D ratio;men with highernumbers of 48-bp unit copies in exon 3 of a VNTR polymorphism in the DRD4 gene had significantly lower digit ratios on both hands; no effect of the 5-HTTLPR gene on either the digit ratio or aggressive behavior. These findings demonstrate the complexity of gene effects on digit ratios and aggression and call for simultaneous analysis of more candidate genes. It is noteworthy that these results were obtained for a human population that is still practicing foraging and has been subjected to a high selective pressure due to harsh environments and practically has no access to modern medical care. Hadza are highly egalitarian, and their culture does not favor persons with a dominant or aggressive behavior. It is still to be found to what extent the relationships observed in this study are similar to those in other human populations.
In this article we assess the structural equivalence of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) across 26 samples from 24 countries (N = 12,200). The ZTPI is proven to be a valid and reliable index of individual differences in time perspective across five temporal categories: Past-Negative, Past-Positive, Present-Fatalistic, Present-Hedonistic, and Future. We obtained evidence for invariance of 36 items (out of 56) and also the five-factor structure of ZTPI across 23 countries. The short ZTPI scales are reliable for country-level analysis, whereas we recommend the use of the full scales for individual-level analysis. The short-version of ZTPI will further promote integration of research in the time perspective domain in relation to many different psycho-social processes.
We consider a project investment problem, where a set of projects and an overall budget are given. For each project, a piecewise linear profit function is known which describes the profit obtained if a specific amount is invested into this project. The objective is to determine the amount invested into each project such that the overall budget is not exceeded and the total profit is maximized. For this problem, a graphical algorithm (GrA) is presented which is based on the same Bellman equations as the best known dynamic programming algorithm (DPA) but the GrA has several advantages in comparison with the DPA. Based on this GrA, a fully-polynomial time approximation scheme is proposed having the best known running time. The idea of the GrA presented can also be used to solve some similar scheduling or lot-sizing problems in a more effective way, e.g., the related problem of finding lot-sizes and sequencing several products on a single imperfect machine.